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Volker Birk 10 months ago
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v2.0, 05/12/2012 -- Initial release of rewrite for Python 3.x

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You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with
this program. If not, see <https://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
If the program does terminal interaction, make it output a short notice like
this when it starts in an interactive mode:
<program> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author>
This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain
conditions; type `show c' for details.
The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate
parts of the General Public License. Of course, your program's commands might
be different; for a GUI interface, you would use an "about box".
You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or school,
if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if necessary. For
more information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU GPL, see <https://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
The GNU General Public License does not permit incorporating your program
into proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may
consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the
library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General Public
License instead of this License. But first, please read <https://www.gnu.org/
licenses /why-not-lgpl.html>.

+ 339
- 0
LICENSE.txt View File

@ -0,0 +1,339 @@
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
Version 2, June 1991
Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
Preamble
The licenses for most software are designed to take away your
freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public
License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. This
General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
the GNU Lesser General Public License instead.) You can apply it to
your programs, too.
When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it
if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it
in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.
To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.
For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their
rights.
We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and
(2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
distribute and/or modify the software.
Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we
want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so
that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original
authors' reputations.
Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
patents. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free
program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
program proprietary. To prevent this, we have made it clear that any
patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.
The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
modification follow.
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains
a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed
under the terms of this General Public License. The "Program", below,
refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program"
means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law:
that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it,
either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another
language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in
the term "modification".) Each licensee is addressed as "you".
Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not
covered by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of
running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program
is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the
Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).
Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.
1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's
source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the
notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty;
and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License
along with the Program.
You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and
you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion
of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices
stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.
b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in
whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any
part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third
parties under the terms of this License.
c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
when run, you must cause it, when started running for such
interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a
notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide
a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under
these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this
License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on
the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If
identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program,
and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those
sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you
distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of
this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the
entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest
your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to
exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
collective works based on the Program.
In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program
with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of
a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
the scope of this License.
3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections
1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your
cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be
distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium
customarily used for software interchange; or,
c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer
to distribute corresponding source code. (This alternative is
allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
received the program in object code or executable form with such
an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
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If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
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access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt
otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under
this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
parties remain in full compliance.
5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not
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prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by
modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the
Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying
the Program or works based on it.
6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
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You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to
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7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
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distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
may not distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent
license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by
all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then
the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to
refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under
any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other
circumstances.
It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
integrity of the free software distribution system, which is
implemented by public license practices. Many people have made
generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing
to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
impose that choice.
This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
be a consequence of the rest of this License.
8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
original copyright holder who places the Program under this License
may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding
those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates
the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
of the General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will
be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
address new problems or concerns.
Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program
specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any
later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions
either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of
this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software
Foundation.
10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author
to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free
Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes
make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals
of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
NO WARRANTY
11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN
OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED
OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS
TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE
PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES,
INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING
OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest
to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
<one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
Copyright (C) <year> <name of author>
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
(at your option) any later version.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
when it starts in an interactive mode:
Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) year name of author
Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate
parts of the General Public License. Of course, the commands you use may
be called something other than `show w' and `show c'; they could even be
mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program.
You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if
necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:
Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program
`Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.
<signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989
Ty Coon, President of Vice
This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into
proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may
consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the
library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General
Public License instead of this License.

+ 3
- 0
MANIFEST.in View File

@ -0,0 +1,3 @@
include *.txt
recursive-include docs *.txt *.html *.css
recursive-include samples *.py

+ 40
- 0
Makefile View File

@ -0,0 +1,40 @@
PYTHON=python3.3
.PHONY: docs test_docs clean push dist test register deploy
docs:
$(MAKE) -C docs
zip -j docs.zip docs/*.html docs/format.css LICENSE.txt
deploy: dist
rm -f pyPEG2.tar.gz pyPEG2-*.tar.gz
ln -s `ls dist/pyPEG2-*.tar.gz | tail -n1` pyPEG2.tar.gz
ln -s `ls dist/pyPEG2-*.tar.gz | tail -n1`
scp docs/*.html docs/format.css pyPEG2.tar.gz pyPEG2-*.tar.gz *.txt samples/* dragon:fdik.org/pyPEG2/
make register
register:
$(PYTHON) setup.py check
$(PYTHON) setup.py register sdist upload
test_docs:
$(MAKE) -C docs test
clean:
$(MAKE) -C docs clean
rm -Rf dist MANIFEST docs.zip pyPEG2.tar.gz pyPEG2-*.tar.gz
push:
hg push ssh://hg@bitbucket.org/fdik/pyPEG
dist: docs
$(PYTHON) setup.py sdist
test:
PYTHONPATH=`pwd` $(PYTHON) pypeg2/test/test_pyPEG2.py
PYTHONPATH=`pwd` $(PYTHON) pypeg2/test/test_xmlast.py
PYTHONPATH=`pwd` $(PYTHON) samples/sample1.py
PYTHONPATH=`pwd` $(PYTHON) samples/sample2.py
install: dist
$(PYTHON) setup.py install --user

+ 0
- 3
README.md View File

@ -1,3 +0,0 @@
# pypeg2
Parser/Composer library for Python

+ 26
- 0
README.txt View File

@ -0,0 +1,26 @@
==============================
pyPEG 2 for Python 2.7 and 3.x
==============================
Python is a nice scripting language. It even gives you access to its own parser
and compiler. It also gives you access to different other parsers for special
purposes like XML and string templates.
But sometimes you may want to have your own parser. This is what's pyPEG for.
And pyPEG supports Unicode.
The source code for all you can find on bitbucket:
https://bitbucket.org/fdik/pypeg/
To build the documentation, you'll need YML 2. You can download YML here:
Homepage: http://fdik.org/yml/
Toolchain: http://fdik.org/yml2.tar.bz2
You can install pyPEG 2 with:
pip install pypeg2
pyPEG 2 depends on lxml, see http://lxml.de/

+ 4
- 0
TODO.txt View File

@ -0,0 +1,4 @@
- omit() includes optional()
- thing based memoization
- pyPEG 1 compatibility wrapper / grammar transformer

+ 34
- 0
docs/Makefile View File

@ -0,0 +1,34 @@
# put the path to your local YML 2 compiler and processor here
YML2C=yml2c
YML2PROC=yml2proc
# for validating documentation (optional)
# see http://xmlstar.sourceforge.net/
XMLSTARLET=xmlstarlet
XHTML1_DTD=/opt/local/share/xml/html/4/xhtml1-transitional.dtd
XHTML_VALIDATOR=$(XMLSTARLET) val -e -d $(XHTML1_DTD)
YHTML=$(wildcard *.en.yhtml2)
HTML=$(subst en.yhtml2,html,$(YHTML))
XML=$(subst en.yhtml2,xml,$(YHTML))
YINC=$(wildcard *.en.yinc2)
documentation: $(HTML)
%.xml: %.en.yhtml2 gen_contents.ysl2
$(YML2PROC) -y gen_contents.ysl2 -s 'dict(file="$(subst .xml,,$@)")' -o $@ $<
%.html: %.en.yhtml2 $(YINC) $(XML)
$(YML2C) -o $@ ./homepage.en.yinc2 $<
.PHONY: test clean
test: $(subst .html,.test,$(HTML))
%.test: %.html
$(XHTML_VALIDATOR) $<
clean:
rm -f *.html *.xml

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- 0
docs/format.css View File

@ -0,0 +1,175 @@
html {
background-color: brightwhite;
}
.mark {
background:#ffff80;
}
.red {
background:#ffc0c0;
}
.green {
background:#c0ffc0;
}
.blue {
background:#c0c0ff;
}
.orange {
background:#ffe0c0;
}
#python1 {
position: absolute;
top: 40px; left: 910px;
width: 200px;
background: #f0f0f0;
font-size: 12pt;
font-weight: normal;
padding: 10px;
}
body {
counter-reset: chapter;
margin-left: auto;
margin-right: auto;
margin-top: 0;
width: 900px;
min-height: 768px;
background-color: white;
font-family: Sans-serif;
font-size: 12pt;
}
em {
color: darkblue;
font-weight: bold;
font-style: normal;
}
code, pre {
white-space: pre;
background: #f0f0f0;
font-size: 11pt;
line-height: 120%;
vertical-align: 2%;
}
#headline {
color: black;
font-size: 18pt;
font-weight: normal;
border-bottom-width: 1px;
border-bottom-style: solid;
padding: 10px;
}
table.glossary {
padding: 0;
border-collapse: collapse;
border: none;
}
td.glossary {
vertical-align: baseline;
margin: 0;
padding-left: 0.3em;
padding-right: 0.3em;
border: solid gray 1px;
border-spacing: 0;
}
#navigation {
position: relative;
float: right;
width: 200px;
border-left-width: 1px;
border-left-style: dotted;
padding: 10px;
font-size: 10pt;
}
.head {
font-size: 12pt;
font-weight: bold;
}
#entries {
width: 569px;
padding: 10px;
}
.statusline {
width: 569px;
padding-left: 10px;
padding-right: 10px;
font-size: 10pt;
}
#bottom {
clear: both;
color: grey;
padding: 10px;
}
#entries h1:before {
counter-increment: chapter;
content: counter(chapter) ". ";
}
h1 {
counter-reset: section;
}
h2 {
counter-reset: subsection;
}
h2:before {
counter-increment: section;
content: counter(chapter) "." counter(section) " ";
}
h1, h2 {
font-size: 12pt;
color: darkblue;
}
h3:before {
counter-increment: subsection;
content: counter(chapter) "." counter(section) "." counter(subsection) " ";
}
h3 {
font-size: 12pt;
color: black;
}
h4 {
font-size: 12pt;
color: black;
}
h5 {
font-size: 12pt;
font-weight: normal;
font-style: italic;
color: black;
}
.subscript {
font-size: 10pt;
border-bottom-width: 1px;
border-bottom-style: dotted;
margin-bottom: 1em;
padding-bottom: 1em;
}
.small {
font-size: 10pt;
margin-bottom: 1em;
padding-bottom: 1em;
}

+ 8
- 0
docs/gen_contents.ysl2 View File

@ -0,0 +1,8 @@
include yslt.yml2
stylesheet {
param "file";
template "/page" div class=contents menu apply "h2|h3";
template "h2" li em a href="{$file}.html#{@id}" value ".";
template "h3" li a href="{$file}.html#{@id}" value ".";
}

+ 1198
- 0
docs/grammar_elements.en.yhtml2
File diff suppressed because it is too large
View File


+ 66
- 0
docs/heading.en.yinc2 View File

@ -0,0 +1,66 @@
decl a(href);
decl Code alias pre {
code
content;
};
decl red(class="red") alias span;
decl blue(class="blue") alias span;
decl green(class="green") alias span;
decl orange(class="orange") alias span;
decl Red(class="red") alias div;
decl Green(class="green") alias div;
decl Blue(class="blue") alias div;
decl Orange(class="orange") alias div;
decl mark(class="mark") alias span;
decl Mark(class="mark") alias div;
decl term(*term) alias tr {
td class=glossary p code *term;
td class=glossary p content;
};
decl glossary(class="glossary") alias table;
decl ne(*href) alias li {
a href=*href content;
};
decl P(class="head") alias p;
div id="headline" {
p > pyPEG – a PEG Parser-Interpreter in Python
div class="small" {
"pyPEG 2.15.0 of Fr Jan 10 2014 – Copyleft 2009-2014, "
a "http://fdik.org", "Volker Birk";
}
div id=python1 p
>>
Requires Python 3.x or 2.7`br`
Older versions: ¬http://fdik.org/pyPEG1 pyPEG 1.x¬
>>
}
div id="navigation" {
P a href="index.html" > How to use pyPEG
include xml ./index.xml
P a href="grammar_elements.html" > Grammar Elements
include xml ./grammar_elements.xml
P a href="parser_engine.html" > Parser Engine
include xml ./parser_engine.xml
P a href="xml_backend.html" > XML Backend
include xml ./xml_backend.xml
P "I want this!";
menu {
ne "http://fdik.org/pyPEG2/pyPEG2.tar.gz" strong > Download pyPEG 2
ne "LICENSE.txt" > License
ne "https://bitbucket.org/fdik/pypeg/" > Bitbucket Repository
// ne "http://www.pibit.ch" > Commercial support for pyPEG
ne "http://fdik.org/yml" > YML is using pyPEG
ne "http://fdik.org/iec2xml/"
> The IEC 61131-3 Structured Text to XML Compiler is using pyPEG
ne "http://fdik.org/pyPEG1" > pyPEG version 1.x
}
}

+ 30
- 0
docs/homepage.en.yinc2 View File

@ -0,0 +1,30 @@
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
decl pageContent(style) alias body {
a name="top";
include ./heading.en.yinc2;
div id="entries"
content;
};
decl page(*title, *style="", lang="en", xml:lang="en", xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml") alias html {
head {
title *title;
meta http-equiv="Content-Type", content="text/html;charset=UTF-8";
link rel="stylesheet", type="text/css", href="format.css";
}
pageContent(*style)
content;
};
decl w(%term, href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%term") alias a;
define operator "¬\s*(.*?)\s+(.*?)\s*¬" as a href="%1" > %2
define operator "π\s*(.*?)\s+(.*?)\s*π" as a href="http://docs.python.org/py3k/library/%1" > %2
define operator "∑([\w-]*)" as a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%1" > %1
define operator "∫(.*?)∫" as a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%1" > %1
define operator "«(.*?)»" as code > %1
define operator "ƒ([\w-]*)" as em > %1
define operator "◊(.*?)◊" as mark > %1

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page "pyPEG – a PEG Parser-Interpreter in Python" {
h1 id=intro > Introduction
p >>
∑Python is a nice ∫scripting language∫. It even gives you access to its
own ∑parser and ∑compiler. It also gives you access to different other
parsers for special purposes like ∑XML and string templates.
>>
p >>
But sometimes you may want to have your own parser. This is what's
ƒpyPEG for. And ƒpyPEG supports ∑Unicode.
>>
p >>
ƒpyPEG is a plain and simple intrinsic parser interpreter framework for
Python version 2.7 and 3.x. It is based on ∫Parsing Expression Grammar∫,
PEG. With ƒpyPEG you can parse many formal languages in a very easy
way. How does that work?
>>
h2 id=installation > Installation
p >>
You can install a «2.x» series ƒpyPEG release from
¬https://pypi.python.org/pypi/pyPEG2 PyPY¬ with:
>>
Code ||
pip install pypeg2
||
h2 id=parsing > Parsing text with pyPEG
p >>
PEG is something like ∫Regular Expressions∫ with recursion. The
grammars are like templates. Let's make an example. Let's say, you
want to parse a function declaration in a C like language. Such a
function declaration consists of:
>>
table style="margin-bottom:3ex;" {
tr {
td red >     
td style="padding-left:.5em;" > type declaration
}
tr {
td orange >     
td style="padding-left:.5em;" > name
}
tr {
td green >     
td style="padding-left:.5em;" > parameters
}
tr {
td blue >     
td style="padding-left:.5em;" > block with instructions
}
}
pre {
code | `red > int` `orange > f`(`green > int a, long b`)
code blue ||
{
do_this;
do_that;
}
||
}
p >>
With ƒpyPEG you're declaring a Python class for each object type you want
to parse. This class is then instanciated for each parsed object. This class
gets an attribute «grammar» with a description what should be parsed in
what way. In our simple example, we are supporting two different things
declared as keywords in our language: «int» and «long». So we're
writing a class declaration for the typing, which supports an «Enum» of
the two possible keywords as its «grammar»:
>>
Code ||
class Type(Keyword):
grammar = Enum( K("int"), K("long") )
||
p >>
Common parsing tasks are included in the ƒpyPEG framework. In this
example, we're using the «Keyword» class because the result will be a
keyword, and we're using «Keyword» objects (with the abbreviation «K»),
because what we parse will be one of the enlisted keywords.
>>
p >>
The total result will be a «Function». So we're declaring a «Function»
class:
>>
Code ||
class Function:
grammar = `red > Type`, …
||
p >>
The next thing will be the name of the «Function» to parse. Names are
somewhat special in ƒpyPEG. But they're easy to handle: to parse a
name, there is a ready made «name()» function you can call in your grammar to
generate a «.name» «Attribute»:
>>
Code ||
class Function:
grammar = `red > Type`, `orange > name()`, …
||
p >>
Now for the «Parameters» part. First let's declare a class for the parameters.
«Parameters» has to be a collection, because there may be many of
them. ƒpyPEG has some ready made collections. For the case of the «Parameters»,
the «Namespace» collection will fit. It provides indexed access by name, and
«Parameters» have names (in our example: «a» and «b»). We write it like this:
>>
Code
||
class Parameters(Namespace):
grammar = …
||
p >>
A single «Parameter» has a structure itself. It has a «Type» and a «name()».
So let's define:
>>
Code
||
class Parameter:
grammar = Type, name()
class Parameters(Namespace):
grammar = …
||
p >>
ƒpyPEG will instantiate the «Parameter» class for each parsed parameter.
Where will the «Type» go to? The «name()» function will generate a
«.name» «Attribute», but the «Type» object? Well, let's move it to an
«Attribute», too, named «.typing». To generate an «Attribute», ƒpyPEG
offers the «attr()» function:
>>
Code
||
class Parameter:
grammar = attr("typing", Type), name()
class Parameters(Namespace):
grammar = …
||
p >>
By the way: «name()» is just a shortcut for «attr("name", Symbol)». It generates
a «Symbol».
>>
p >>
How can we fill our «Namespace» collection named «Parameters»? Well, we have
to declare, how a list of «Parameter» objects will look like in our source text.
An easy way is offered by ƒpyPEG with the cardinality functions. In this case
we can use «maybe_some()». This function represents the asterisk cardinality, *
>>
Code
||
class Parameter:
grammar = attr("typing", Type), name()
class Parameters(Namespace):
grammar = Parameter, maybe_some(",", Parameter)
||
p >>
This is how we express a comma separated list. Because this task is so common,
there is a shortcut generator function again, «csl()». The code below will do
the same as the code above:
>>
Code
||
class Parameter:
grammar = attr("typing", Type), name()
class Parameters(Namespace):
grammar = csl(Parameter)
||
p >>
Maybe a function has no parameters. This is a case we have to consider.
What should happen then? In our example, then the «Parameters» «Namespace» should
be empty. We're using another cardinality function for that case, «optional()». It
represents the question mark cardinality, ?
>>
Code
||
class Parameter:
grammar = attr("typing", Type), name()
class Parameters(Namespace):
grammar = optional(csl(Parameter))
||
p >>
We can continue with our «Function» class. The «Parameters» will be
in parantheses, we just put that into the «grammar»:
>>
Code ||
class Function:
grammar = `red > Type`, `orange > name()`, "(", `green > Parameters`, ")", …
||
p >>
Now for the block of instructions. We could declare another collection for the
Instructions. But the function itself can be seen as a list of instructions. So
let us declare it this way. First we make the «Function» class itself a «List»:
>>
Code ||
class Function(`blue > List`):
grammar = `red > Type`, `orange > name()`, "(", `green > Parameters`, ")", …
||
p >>
If a class is a «List», ƒpyPEG will put everything inside this list,
which will be parsed and does not generate an «Attribute». So with that
modification, our «Parameters» now will be put into that List, too. And
so will be the «Type». This is an option, but in our example, it is not
what we want. So let's move them to an «Attribute» «.typing» and an
«Attribute» «.parms» respectively:
>>
Code ||
class Function(`blue > List`):
grammar = `red > attr("typing", Type)`, `orange > name()`, \\
"(", `green > attr("parms", Parameters)`, ")", …
||
p >>
Now we can define what a «block» will look like, and put it just behind into
the «grammar» of a «Function». The «Instruction» class we have plain and simple.
Of course, in a real world example, it can be pretty complex ;-) Here we just
have it as a «word». A «word» is a predefined «RegEx»; it is «re.compile(r"\w+")».
>>
Code
||
class Instruction(str):
grammar = word, ";"
block = `blue > "{", maybe_some(Instruction), "}"`
||
p >>
Now let's put that to the tail of our «Function.grammar»:
>>
Code ||
class Function(`blue > List`):
grammar = `red > attr("typing", Type)`, `orange > name()`, \\
"(", `green > attr("parms", Parameters)`, ")", `blue > block`
||
p >>
ƒCaveat: pyPEG 2.x is written for Python 3. You can use it with
Python 2.7 with the following import (you don't need that for Python 3):
>>
Code | from __future__ import unicode_literals, print_function
p >>
Well, that looks pretty good now. Let's try it out using the «parse()» function:
>>
Code
||
>>> from pypeg2 import *
>>> class Type(Keyword):
... grammar = Enum( K("int"), K("long") )
...
>>> class Parameter:
... grammar = attr("typing", Type), name()
...
>>> class Parameters(Namespace):
... grammar = optional(csl(Parameter))
...
>>> class Instruction(str):
... grammar = word, ";"
...
>>> block = "{", maybe_some(Instruction), "}"
>>> class Function(List):
... grammar = attr("typing", Type), name(), \\
... "(", attr("parms", Parameters), ")", block
...
>>> f = parse("int f(int a, long b) { do_this; do_that; }",
... Function)
>>> f.name
Symbol('f')
>>> f.typing
Symbol('int')
>>> f.parms["b"].typing
Symbol('long')
>>> f[0]
'do_this'
>>> f[1]
'do_that'
||
h2 id=composing > Composing text
p >>
ƒpyPEG can do more. It is not only a framework for parsing text, it can
compose source code, too. A ƒpyPEG «grammar» is not only “just like” a
template, it can actually be used as a template for composing text.
Just call the «compose()» function:
>>
Code
||
>>> compose(f, autoblank=False)
'intf(inta, longb){do_this;do_that;}'
||
p >>
As you can see, for composing first there is a lack of whitespace. This
is because we used the automated whitespace removing functionality of
ƒpyPEG while parsing (which is enabled by default) but we disabled the
automated adding of blanks if violating syntax otherwise. To improve on
that we have to extend our «grammar» templates a little bit. For that
case, there are callback function objects in ƒpyPEG. They're only
executed by «compose()» and ignored by «parse()». And as usual, there
are predefined ones for the common cases. Let's try that out. First
let's add «blank» between things which should be separated:
>>
Code
||
class Parameter:
grammar = attr("typing", Type), ◊blank◊, name()
class Function(List):
grammar = attr("typing", Type), ◊blank◊, name(), \\
"(", attr("parms", Parameters), ")", block
||
p >>
After resetting everything, this will lead to the output:
>>
Code ||
>>> compose(f, autoblank=False)
'int◊ ◊f(int◊ ◊a, long◊ ◊b){do_this;do_that;}'
||
p >>
The «blank» after the comma `code { "int a," mark " "; "long b"}` was
generated by the «csl()» function; «csl(Parameter)» generates:
>>
Code | Parameter, maybe_some(",", blank, Parameter)
h3 id=indenting > Indenting text
p >>
In C like languages (like our example) we like to indent blocks.
Indention is something, which is relative to a current position. If
something is inside a block already, and should be indented, it has to
be indented two times (and so on). For that case ƒpyPEG has an indention
system.
>>
p >>
The indention system basically is using the generating function «indent()»
and the callback function object «endl». With indent we can mark what should
be indented, sending «endl» means here should start the next line of the
source code being output. We can use this for our «block»:
>>
Code
||
class Instruction(str):
grammar = word, ";", ◊endl◊
block = "{", ◊endl◊, maybe_some(◊indent(◊Instruction◊)◊), "}", ◊endl◊
class Function(List):
grammar = attr("typing", Type), blank, name(), \\
"(", attr("parms", Parameters), ")", ◊endl◊, block
||
p >>
This changes the output to:
>>
Code ||
>>> print(compose(f))
int f(int a, long b)
{
do_this;
do_that;
}
||
h3 id=usercallbacks > User defined Callback Functions
p >>
With User defined Callback Functions ƒpyPEG offers the needed flexibility
to be useful as a general purpose template system for code generation. In
our simple example let's say we want to have processing information in
comments in the «Function» declaration, i.e. the indention level in a comment
bevor each «Instruction». For that we can define our own Callback Function:
>>
Code {
| class Instruction(str):
mark
||
def heading(self, parser):
return "/* on level " + str(parser.indention_level) \\
+ " */", endl
||
}
p >>
Such a Callback Function is called with two arguments. The first
argument is the object to output. The second argument is the parser
object to get state information of the composing process. Because this
fits the convention for Python methods, you can write it as a method of
the class where it belongs to.
>>
p >>
The return value of such a Callback Function must be the resulting text.
In our example, a C comment shell be generated with notes. We can put
this now into the «grammar».
>>
Code
||
class Instruction(str):
def heading(self, parser):
return "/* on level " + str(parser.indention_level) \\
+ " */", endl
grammar = ◊heading◊, word, ";", endl
||
p >>
The result is corresponding:
>>
Code
||
>>> print(compose(f))
int f(int a, long b)
{
/* on level 1 */
do_this;
/* on level 1 */
do_that;
}
||
h2 id=xmlout > XML output
p >>
Sometimes you want to process what you parsed with
¬http://www.w3.org/TR/xml/ the XML toolchain¬, or with
¬http://fdik.org/yml the YML toolchain¬. Because of that, ƒpyPEG has an
XML backend. Just call the «thing2xml()» function to get «bytes» with
encoded XML:
>>
Code
||
>>> from pypeg2.xmlast import thing2xml
>>> print(◊thing2xml(f, pretty=True)◊.decode())
<Function typing="int" name="f">
<Parameters>
<Parameter typing="int" name="a"/>
<Parameter typing="long" name="b"/>
</Parameters>
<Instruction>do_this</Instruction>
<Instruction>do_that</Instruction>
</Function>
||
p >>
The complete sample code
¬http://fdik.org/pyPEG2/sample1.py you can download here¬.
>>
div id="bottom" {
"Want to download? Go to the "
a "#top", "^Top^"; " and look to the right ;-)"
}
}

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page "pyPEG – the Parser Engine", "counter-reset: chapter 2;" {
h1 id=pengine> Parser Engine
h2 id=parser > Class Parser
p >>
Offers parsing and composing capabilities. Implements an intrinsic
∫Packrat parser∫.
>>
p >>
ƒpyPEG uses memoization as speed enhancement. Create a
`a href="#parser" code > Parser` instance to have a reset cache memory.
Usually this is recommended if you're parsing another text – the cache
memory will not provide wrong results but a reset will save memory
consumption. If you're altering the grammar then clearing the cache
memory for the respective things is required for having correct parsing
results. Please use the
`a href="#parser_clear_memory" code > clear_memory()` method in that
case.
>>
h3 id=parser_vars > Instance variables
p >>
The instance variables are representing the parser's state.
>>
glossary {
term "whitespace"
>>
Regular expression to scan whitespace; default: «re.compile(r"(?m)\s+")».
Set to «None» to disable automatic «whitespace» removing.
>>
term "comment"
>>
«grammar» to parse comments; default: «None».
If a «grammar» is set here, comments will be removed from the
source text automatically.
>>
term "last_error"
> after parsing, «SyntaxError» which ended parsing
term "indent"
> string to use to indent while composing; default: four spaces
term "indention_level"
> level to indent to; default: «0»
term "text"
> original text to parse; set for decorated syntax errors
term "filename"
> filename where text is origin from
term "autoblank"
> add blanks while composing if grammar would possibly be violated otherwise; default: True
term "keep_feeble_things"
>>
keep otherwise cropped things like comments and whitespace; these
things are being put into the «feeble_things» attribute
>>
}
h3 id=parser_init > Method __init__()
h4 > Synopsis
p > «__init__(self)»