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This document describes installation on all supported operating
systems (the Unix/Linux family (which includes Mac OS/X), OpenVMS,
and Windows).
To install OpenSSL, you will need:
* A make implementation
* Perl 5 with core modules (please read NOTES.PERL)
* The perl module Text::Template (please read NOTES.PERL)
* an ANSI C compiler
* a development environment in the form of development libraries and C
header files
* a supported operating system
For additional platform specific requirements, solutions to specific
issues and other details, please read one of these:
* NOTES.UNIX (any supported Unix like system)
* NOTES.WIN (any supported Windows)
* NOTES.DJGPP (DOS platform with DJGPP)
* NOTES.ANDROID (obviously Android [NDK])
* NOTES.VALGRIND (testing with Valgrind)
Notational conventions in this document
Throughout this document, we use the following conventions in command
$ command Any line starting with a dollar sign
($) is a command line.
{ word1 | word2 | word3 } This denotes a mandatory choice, to be
replaced with one of the given words.
A simple example would be this:
$ echo { FOO | BAR | COOKIE }
which is to be understood as one of
$ echo FOO
- or -
$ echo BAR
- or -
$ echo COOKIE
[ word1 | word2 | word3 ] Similar to { word1 | word2 | word3 }
except it's optional to give any of
those. In addition to the examples
above, this would also be valid:
$ echo
{{ target }} This denotes a mandatory word or
sequence of words of some sort. A
simple example would be this:
$ type {{ filename }}
which is to be understood to use the
command 'type' on some file name
determined by the user.
[[ options ]] Similar to {{ target }}, but is
Note that the notation assumes spaces around {, }, [, ], {{, }} and
[[, ]]. This is to differentiate from OpenVMS directory
specifications, which also use [ and ], but without spaces.
Quick Start
If you want to just get on with it, do:
on Unix (again, this includes Mac OS/X):
$ ./config
$ make
$ make test
$ make install
on OpenVMS:
$ @config
$ mms
$ mms test
$ mms install
on Windows (only pick one of the targets for configuration):
$ perl Configure { VC-WIN32 | VC-WIN64A | VC-WIN64I | VC-CE }
$ nmake
$ nmake test
$ nmake install
Note that in order to perform the install step above you need to have
appropriate permissions to write to the installation directory.
If any of these steps fails, see section Installation in Detail below.
This will build and install OpenSSL in the default location, which is:
Unix: normal installation directories under /usr/local
OpenVMS: SYS$COMMON:[OPENSSL-'version'...], where 'version' is the
OpenSSL version number with underscores instead of periods.
Windows: C:\Program Files\OpenSSL or C:\Program Files (x86)\OpenSSL
The installation directory should be appropriately protected to ensure
unprivileged users cannot make changes to OpenSSL binaries or files, or install
engines. If you already have a pre-installed version of OpenSSL as part of
your Operating System it is recommended that you do not overwrite the system
version and instead install to somewhere else.
If you want to install it anywhere else, run config like this:
On Unix:
$ ./config --prefix=/opt/openssl --openssldir=/usr/local/ssl
On OpenVMS:
$ @config --prefix=PROGRAM:[INSTALLS] --openssldir=SYS$MANAGER:[OPENSSL]
(Note: if you do add options to the configuration command, please make sure
you've read more than just this Quick Start, such as relevant NOTES.* files,
the options outline below, as configuration options may change the outcome
in otherwise unexpected ways)
Configuration Options
There are several options to ./config (or ./Configure) to customize
the build (note that for Windows, the defaults for --prefix and
--openssldir depend in what configuration is used and what Windows
implementation OpenSSL is built on. More notes on this in NOTES.WIN):
Build the OpenSSL libraries to support the API for
the specified version. If "no-deprecated" is also
given, don't build with support for deprecated APIs
in or below the specified version number. For example
"--api=1.1.0" with "no-deprecated" will remove
support for all APIS that were deprecated in
OpenSSL version 1.1.0 or below.
This is a rather specialized option for developers.
If you just intend to remove all deprecated APIs
entirely (up to the current version), only specify
"-no-deprecated" (see below).
If "--api" isn't given, it defaults to the current
OpenSSL minor version.
The PREFIX to include in front of commands for your
toolchain. It's likely to have to end with dash, e.g.
a-b-c- would invoke GNU compiler as a-b-c-gcc, etc.
Unfortunately cross-compiling is too case-specific to
put together one-size-fits-all instructions. You might
have to pass more flags or set up environment variables
to actually make it work. Android and iOS cases are
discussed in corresponding Configurations/15-*.conf
files. But there are cases when this option alone is
sufficient. For example to build the mingw64 target on
Linux "--cross-compile-prefix=x86_64-w64-mingw32-"
works. Naturally provided that mingw packages are
installed. Today Debian and Ubuntu users have option to
install a number of prepackaged cross-compilers along
with corresponding run-time and development packages for
"alien" hardware. To give another example
"--cross-compile-prefix=mipsel-linux-gnu-" suffices
in such case. Needless to mention that you have to
invoke ./Configure, not ./config, and pass your target
name explicitly. Also, note that --openssldir refers
to target's file system, not one you are building on.
Build OpenSSL with debugging symbols and zero optimization
The name of the directory under the top of the installation
directory tree (see the --prefix option) where libraries will
be installed. By default this is "lib". Note that on Windows
only ".lib" files will be stored in this location. dll files
will always be installed to the "bin" directory.
Directory for OpenSSL configuration files, and also the
default certificate and key store. Defaults are:
Unix: /usr/local/ssl
Windows: C:\Program Files\Common Files\SSL
or C:\Program Files (x86)\Common Files\SSL
The top of the installation directory tree. Defaults are:
Unix: /usr/local
Windows: C:\Program Files\OpenSSL
or C:\Program Files (x86)\OpenSSL
Build OpenSSL without debugging symbols. This is the default.
This is a developer flag that switches on various compiler
options recommended for OpenSSL development. It only works
when using gcc or clang as the compiler. If you are
developing a patch for OpenSSL then it is recommended that
you use this option where possible.
The directory for the location of the zlib include file. This
option is only necessary if enable-zlib (see below) is used
and the include file is not already on the system include
On Unix: this is the directory containing the zlib library.
If not provided the system library path will be used.
On Windows: this is the filename of the zlib library (with or
without a path). This flag must be provided if the
zlib-dynamic option is not also used. If zlib-dynamic is used
then this flag is optional and a default value ("ZLIB1") is
used if not provided.
On VMS: this is the filename of the zlib library (with or
without a path). This flag is optional and if not provided
used by default depending on the pointer size chosen.
A comma separated list of seeding methods which will be tried
by OpenSSL in order to obtain random input (a.k.a "entropy")
for seeding its cryptographically secure random number
generator (CSPRNG). The current seeding methods are:
os: Use a trusted operating system entropy source.
This is the default method if such an entropy
source exists.
getrandom: Use the L<getrandom(2)> or equivalent system
devrandom: Use the first device from the DEVRANDOM list
which can be opened to read random bytes. The
DEVRANDOM preprocessor constant expands to
"/dev/urandom","/dev/random","/dev/srandom" on
most unix-ish operating systems.
egd: Check for an entropy generating daemon.
rdcpu: Use the RDSEED or RDRAND command if provided by
the CPU.
librandom: Use librandom (not implemented yet).
none: Disable automatic seeding. This is the default
on some operating systems where no suitable
entropy source exists, or no support for it is
implemented yet.
For more information, see the section 'Note on random number
generation' at the end of this document.
Don't build the AFALG engine. This option will be forced if
on a platform that does not support AFALG.
Build with Kernel TLS support. This option will enable the
use of the Kernel TLS data-path, which can improve
performance and allow for the use of sendfile and splice
system calls on TLS sockets. The Kernel may use TLS
accelerators if any are available on the system.
This option will be forced off on systems that do not support
the Kernel TLS data-path.
Build with the Address sanitiser. This is a developer option
only. It may not work on all platforms and should never be
used in production environments. It will only work when used
with gcc or clang and should be used in conjunction with the
no-shared option.
Do not use assembler code. This should be viewed as
debugging/trouble-shooting option rather than production.
On some platforms a small amount of assembler code may
still be used even with this option.
Do not build support for async operations.
Don't automatically load all supported ciphers and digests.
Typically OpenSSL will make available all of its supported
ciphers and digests. For a statically linked application this
may be undesirable if small executable size is an objective.
This only affects libcrypto. Ciphers and digests will have to
be loaded manually using EVP_add_cipher() and
EVP_add_digest() if this option is used. This option will
force a non-shared build.
Don't automatically load all libcrypto/libssl error strings.
Typically OpenSSL will automatically load human readable
error strings. For a statically linked application this may
be undesirable if small executable size is an objective.
Don't automatically load the default openssl.cnf file.
Typically OpenSSL will automatically load a system config
file which configures default ssl options.
While testing, generate C++ buildtest files that
simply check that the public OpenSSL header files
are usable standalone with C++.
Enabling this option demands extra care. For any
compiler flag given directly as configuration
option, you must ensure that it's valid for both
the C and the C++ compiler. If not, the C++ build
test will most likely break. As an alternative,
you can use the language specific variables, CFLAGS
Don't build the CAPI engine. This option will be forced if
on a platform that does not support CAPI.
Don't build support for CMP features
Don't build support for CMS features
Don't build support for SSL/TLS compression. If this option
is left enabled (the default), then compression will only
work if the zlib or zlib-dynamic options are also chosen.
This now only enables the failed-malloc feature.
This is a no-op; the project uses the compiler's
address/leak sanitizer instead.
Don't build support for Certificate Transparency.
Don't build with support for deprecated APIs up
until and including the version given with
"--api" (or the current version of "--api" wasn't
Don't build support for datagram based BIOs. Selecting this
option will also force the disabling of DTLS.
Don't build support for loading Dynamic Shared Objects.
Build the /dev/crypto engine. It is automatically selected
on BSD implementations, in which case it can be disabled with
Don't build the dynamically loaded engines. This only has an
effect in a "shared" build
Don't build support for Elliptic Curves.
Don't build support for binary Elliptic Curves
Enable support for optimised implementations of some commonly
used NIST elliptic curves.
This is only supported on platforms:
- with little-endian storage of non-byte types
- that tolerate misaligned memory references
- where the compiler:
- supports the non-standard type __uint128_t
- defines the built-in macro __SIZEOF_INT128__
Build support for gathering entropy from EGD (Entropy
Gathering Daemon).
Don't build support for loading engines.
Don't compile in any error strings.
Enable building of integration with external test suites.
This is a developer option and may not work on all platforms.
The only supported external test suite at the current time is
the BoringSSL test suite. See the file test/README.external
for further details.
Don't compile in filename and line number information (e.g.
for errors and memory allocation).
Don't compile the FIPS module
enable-fuzz-libfuzzer, enable-fuzz-afl
Build with support for fuzzing using either libfuzzer or AFL.
These are developer options only. They may not work on all
platforms and should never be used in production environments.
See the file fuzz/ for further details.
Don't build support for GOST based ciphersuites. Note that
if this feature is enabled then GOST ciphersuites are only
available if the GOST algorithms are also available through
loading an externally supplied engine.
Don't build the legacy provider. Disabling this also disables
the legacy algorithms: MD2 (already disabled by default).
Don't generate dependencies.
Don't build any dynamically loadable engines. This also
implies 'no-dynamic-engine'.
Don't build support for writing multiple records in one
go in libssl (Note: this is a different capability to the
pipelining functionality).
Don't build support for the NPN TLS extension.
Don't build support for OCSP.
Don't build the padlock engine.
('no-hw-padlock' is deprecated and should not be used)
Don't build with support for Position Independent Code.
no-pinshared By default OpenSSL will attempt to stay in memory until the
process exits. This is so that libcrypto and libssl can be
properly cleaned up automatically via an "atexit()" handler.
The handler is registered by libcrypto and cleans up both
libraries. On some platforms the atexit() handler will run on
unload of libcrypto (if it has been dynamically loaded)
rather than at process exit. This option can be used to stop
OpenSSL from attempting to stay in memory until the process
exits. This could lead to crashes if either libcrypto or
libssl have already been unloaded at the point
that the atexit handler is invoked, e.g. on a platform which
calls atexit() on unload of the library, and libssl is
unloaded before libcrypto then a crash is likely to happen.
Applications can suppress running of the atexit() handler at
run time by using the OPENSSL_INIT_NO_ATEXIT option to
OPENSSL_init_crypto(). See the man page for it for further
Don't use POSIX IO capabilities.
Don't build support for Pre-Shared Key based ciphersuites.
Don't use hardware RDRAND capabilities.
Don't build support for RFC3779 ("X.509 Extensions for IP
Addresses and AS Identifiers")
Build support for SCTP
Do not create shared libraries, only static ones. See "Note
on shared libraries" below.
Don't build support for socket BIOs
Don't build support for SRP or SRP based ciphersuites.
Don't build SRTP support
Exclude SSE2 code paths from 32-bit x86 assembly modules.
Normally SSE2 extension is detected at run-time, but the
decision whether or not the machine code will be executed
is taken solely on CPU capability vector. This means that
if you happen to run OS kernel which does not support SSE2
extension on Intel P4 processor, then your application
might be exposed to "illegal instruction" exception.
There might be a way to enable support in kernel, e.g.
FreeBSD kernel can be compiled with CPU_ENABLE_SSE, and
there is a way to disengage SSE2 code paths upon application
start-up, but if you aim for wider "audience" running
such kernel, consider no-sse2. Both the 386 and
no-asm options imply no-sse2.
Build with the SSL Trace capabilities (adds the "-trace"
option to s_client and s_server).
Don't build the statically linked engines. This only
has an impact when not built "shared".
Don't use anything from the C header file "stdio.h" that
makes use of the "FILE" type. Only libcrypto and libssl can
be built in this way. Using this option will suppress
building the command line applications. Additionally since
the OpenSSL tests also use the command line applications the
tests will also be skipped.
Don't build test programs or run any test.
Don't try to build with support for multi-threaded
Build with support for multi-threaded applications. Most
platforms will enable this by default. However if on a
platform where this is not the case then this will usually
require additional system-dependent options! See "Note on
multi-threading" below.
Build with support for the integrated tracing api. See manual pages
OSSL_trace_set_channel(3) and OSSL_trace_enabled(3) for details.
Don't build Time Stamping Authority support.
Build with the Undefined Behaviour sanitiser. This is a
developer option only. It may not work on all platforms and
should never be used in production environments. It will only
work when used with gcc or clang and should be used in
conjunction with the "-DPEDANTIC" option (or the
--strict-warnings option).
Don't build with the "UI" capability (i.e. the set of
features enabling text based prompts).
Enable additional unit test APIs. This should not typically
be used in production deployments.
Don't build support for UPLINK interface.
Build support for SSL/TLS ciphers that are considered "weak"
(e.g. RC4 based ciphersuites).
Build with support for zlib compression/decompression.
Like "zlib", but has OpenSSL load the zlib library
dynamically when needed. This is only supported on systems
where loading of shared libraries is supported.
In 32-bit x86 builds, when generating assembly modules,
use the 80386 instruction set only (the default x86 code
is more efficient, but requires at least a 486). Note:
This doesn't affect code generated by compiler, you're
likely to complement configuration command line with
suitable compiler-specific option.
Don't build support for negotiating the specified SSL/TLS
protocol (one of ssl, ssl3, tls, tls1, tls1_1, tls1_2,
tls1_3, dtls, dtls1 or dtls1_2). If "no-tls" is selected then
all of tls1, tls1_1, tls1_2 and tls1_3 are disabled.
Similarly "no-dtls" will disable dtls1 and dtls1_2. The
"no-ssl" option is synonymous with "no-ssl3". Note this only
affects version negotiation. OpenSSL will still provide the
methods for applications to explicitly select the individual
protocol versions.
As for no-<prot> but in addition do not build the methods for
applications to explicitly select individual protocol
versions. Note that there is no "no-tls1_3-method" option
because there is no application method for TLSv1.3. Using
individual protocol methods directly is deprecated.
Applications should use TLS_method() instead.
Build with support for the specified algorithm, where <alg>
is one of: md2 or rc5.
Build without support for the specified algorithm, where
<alg> is one of: aria, bf, blake2, camellia, cast, chacha,
cmac, des, dh, dsa, ecdh, ecdsa, idea, md4, mdc2, ocb,
poly1305, rc2, rc4, rmd160, scrypt, seed, siphash, siv, sm2,
sm3, sm4 or whirlpool. The "ripemd" algorithm is deprecated
and if used is synonymous with rmd160.
-Dxxx, -Ixxx, -Wp, -lxxx, -Lxxx, -Wl, -rpath, -R, -framework, -static
These system specific options will be recognised and
passed through to the compiler to allow you to define
preprocessor symbols, specify additional libraries, library
directories or other compiler options. It might be worth
noting that some compilers generate code specifically for
processor the compiler currently executes on. This is not
necessarily what you might have in mind, since it might be
unsuitable for execution on other, typically older,
processor. Consult your compiler documentation.
Take note of the VAR=value documentation below and how
these flags interact with those variables.
-xxx, +xxx, /xxx
Additional options that are not otherwise recognised are
passed through as they are to the compiler as well.
Unix-style options beginning with a '-' or '+' and
Windows-style options beginning with a '/' are recognized.
Again, consult your compiler documentation.
If the option contains arguments separated by spaces,
then the URL-style notation %20 can be used for the space
character in order to avoid having to quote the option.
For example, -opt%20arg gets expanded to -opt arg.
In fact, any ASCII character can be encoded as %xx using its
hexadecimal encoding.
Take note of the VAR=value documentation below and how
these flags interact with those variables.
Assignment of environment variable for Configure. These
work just like normal environment variable assignments,
but are supported on all platforms and are confined to
the configuration scripts only. These assignments override
the corresponding value in the inherited environment, if
there is one.
The following variables are used as "make variables" and
can be used as an alternative to giving preprocessor,
compiler and linker options directly as configuration.
The following variables are supported:
AR The static library archiver.
ARFLAGS Flags for the static library archiver.
AS The assembler compiler.
ASFLAGS Flags for the assembler compiler.
CC The C compiler.
CFLAGS Flags for the C compiler.
CXX The C++ compiler.
CXXFLAGS Flags for the C++ compiler.
CPP The C/C++ preprocessor.
CPPFLAGS Flags for the C/C++ preprocessor.
CPPDEFINES List of CPP macro definitions, separated
by a platform specific character (':' or
space for Unix, ';' for Windows, ',' for
VMS). This can be used instead of using
-D (or what corresponds to that on your
compiler) in CPPFLAGS.
CPPINCLUDES List of CPP inclusion directories, separated
the same way as for CPPDEFINES. This can
be used instead of -I (or what corresponds
to that on your compiler) in CPPFLAGS.
HASHBANGPERL Perl invocation to be inserted after '#!'
in public perl scripts (only relevant on
LD The program linker (not used on Unix, $(CC)
is used there).
LDFLAGS Flags for the shared library, DSO and
program linker.
LDLIBS Extra libraries to use when linking.
Takes the form of a space separated list
of library specifications on Unix and
Windows, and as a comma separated list of
libraries on VMS.
RANLIB The library archive indexer.
RC The Windows resource compiler.
RCFLAGS Flags for the Windows resource compiler.
RM The command to remove files and directories.
These cannot be mixed with compiling / linking flags given
on the command line. In other words, something like this
isn't permitted.
Backward compatibility note:
To be compatible with older configuration scripts, the
environment variables are ignored if compiling / linking
flags are given on the command line, except for these:
For example, the following command will not see -DBAR:
However, the following will see both set variables:
CC=gcc CROSS_COMPILE=x86_64-w64-mingw32- \
./config -DCOOKIE
If CC is set, it is advisable to also set CXX to ensure
both C and C++ compilers are in the same "family". This
becomes relevant with 'enable-external-tests' and
Reconfigure from earlier data. This fetches the previous
command line options and environment from data saved in
"", and runs the configuration process again,
using these options and environment.
Note: NO other option is permitted together with "reconf".
This means that you also MUST use "./Configure" (or
what corresponds to that on non-Unix platforms) directly
to invoke this option.
Note: The original configuration saves away values for ALL
environment variables that were used, and if they weren't
defined, they are still saved away with information that
they weren't originally defined. This information takes
precedence over environment variables that are defined
when reconfiguring.
Displaying configuration data
The configuration script itself will say very little, and finishes by
creating "". This perl module can be loaded by other scripts
to find all the configuration data, and it can also be used as a script to
display all sorts of configuration data in a human readable form.
For more information, please do:
$ ./ --help # Unix
$ perl --help # Windows and VMS
Installation in Detail
1a. Configure OpenSSL for your operation system automatically:
NOTE: This is not available on Windows.
$ ./config [[ options ]] # Unix
$ @config [[ options ]] ! OpenVMS
For the remainder of this text, the Unix form will be used in all
examples, please use the appropriate form for your platform.
This guesses at your operating system (and compiler, if necessary) and
configures OpenSSL based on this guess. Run ./config -t to see
if it guessed correctly. If you want to use a different compiler, you
are cross-compiling for another platform, or the ./config guess was
wrong for other reasons, go to step 1b. Otherwise go to step 2.
On some systems, you can include debugging information as follows:
$ ./config -d [[ options ]]
1b. Configure OpenSSL for your operating system manually
OpenSSL knows about a range of different operating system, hardware and
compiler combinations. To see the ones it knows about, run
$ ./Configure # Unix
$ perl Configure # All other platforms
For the remainder of this text, the Unix form will be used in all
examples, please use the appropriate form for your platform.
Pick a suitable name from the list that matches your system. For most
operating systems there is a choice between using "cc" or "gcc". When
you have identified your system (and if necessary compiler) use this name
as the argument to Configure. For example, a "linux-elf" user would
$ ./Configure linux-elf [[ options ]]
If your system isn&#