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=head1 NAME
migration_guide - OpenSSL migration guide
See the individual manual pages for details.
This guide details the changes required to migrate to new versions of OpenSSL.
Currently this covers OpenSSL 3.0. For earlier versions refer to
For an overview of some of the key concepts introduced in OpenSSL 3.0 see
=head1 OPENSSL 3_0
=head2 Main Changes from OpenSSL 1.1.1
=head3 Major Release
OpenSSL 3.0 is a major release and consequently any application that currently
uses an older version of OpenSSL will at the very least need to be recompiled in
order to work with the new version. It is the intention that the large majority
of applications will work unchanged with OpenSSL 3.0 if those applications
previously worked with OpenSSL 1.1.1. However this is not guaranteed and some
changes may be required in some cases. Changes may also be required if
applications need to take advantage of some of the new features available in
OpenSSL 3.0 such as the availability of the FIPS module.
=head3 License Change
In previous versions, OpenSSL was licensed under the L<dual OpenSSL and SSLeay
(both licenses apply). From OpenSSL 3.0 this is replaced by the
L<Apache License v2|https://www.openssl.org/source/apache-license-2.0.txt>.
=head3 Providers and FIPS support
One of the key changes from OpenSSL 1.1.1 is the introduction of the Provider
concept. Providers collect together and make available algorithm implementations.
With OpenSSL 3.0 it is possible to specify, either programmatically or via a
config file, which providers you want to use for any given application.
OpenSSL 3.0 comes with 5 different providers as standard. Over time third
parties may distribute additional providers that can be plugged into OpenSSL.
All algorithm implementations available via providers are accessed through the
"high level" APIs (for example those functions prefixed with "EVP"). They cannot
be accessed using the L</Low Level APIs>.
One of the standard providers available is the FIPS provider. This makes
available FIPS validated cryptographic algorithms.
The FIPS provider is disabled by default and needs to be enabled explicitly
at configuration time using the `enable-fips` option. If it is enabled,
the FIPS provider gets built and installed in addition to the other standard
providers. No separate installation procedure is necessary.
There is however a dedicated `install_fips` make target, which serves the
special purpose of installing only the FIPS provider into an existing
OpenSSL installation.
See also L</Legacy Algorithms> for information on the legacy provider.
See also L</Completing the installation of the FIPS Module> and
L</Using the FIPS Module in applications>.
=head3 Low Level APIs
OpenSSL has historically provided two sets of APIs for invoking cryptographic
algorithms: the "high level" APIs (such as the "EVP" APIs) and the "low level"
APIs. The high level APIs are typically designed to work across all algorithm
types. The "low level" APIs are targeted at a specific algorithm implementation.
For example, the EVP APIs provide the functions L<EVP_EncryptInit_ex(3)>,
L<EVP_EncryptUpdate(3)> and L<EVP_EncryptFinal(3)> to perform symmetric
encryption. Those functions can be used with the algorithms AES, CHACHA, 3DES etc.
On the other hand, to do AES encryption using the low level APIs you would have
to call AES specific functions such as L<AES_set_encrypt_key(3)>,
L<AES_encrypt(3)>, and so on. The functions for 3DES are different.
Use of the low level APIs has been informally discouraged by the OpenSSL
development team for a long time. However in OpenSSL 3.0 this is made more
formal. All such low level APIs have been deprecated. You may still use them in
your applications, but you may start to see deprecation warnings during
compilation (dependent on compiler support for this). Deprecated APIs may be
removed from future versions of OpenSSL so you are strongly encouraged to update
your code to use the high level APIs instead.
This is described in more detail in L</Deprecation of Low Level Functions>
=head3 Legacy Algorithms
Some cryptographic algorithms such as B<MD2> and B<DES> that were available via
the EVP APIs are now considered legacy and their use is strongly discouraged.
These legacy EVP algorithms are still available in OpenSSL 3.0 but not by
default. If you want to use them then you must load the legacy provider.
This can be as simple as a config file change, or can be done programmatically.
See L<OSSL_PROVIDER-legacy(7)> for a complete list of algorithms.
Applications using the EVP APIs to access these algorithms should instead use
more modern algorithms. If that is not possible then these applications
should ensure that the legacy provider has been loaded. This can be achieved
either programmatically or via configuration. See L<crypto(7)> man page for
more information about providers.
=head3 Engines and "METHOD" APIs
The refactoring to support Providers conflicts internally with the APIs used to
support engines, including the ENGINE API and any function that creates or
modifies custom "METHODS" (for example L<EVP_MD_meth_new(3)>,
L<EVP_CIPHER_meth_new(3)>, L<EVP_PKEY_meth_new(3)>, L<RSA_meth_new(3)>,
L<EC_KEY_METHOD_new(3)>, etc.). These functions are being deprecated in
OpenSSL 3.0, and users of these APIs should know that their use can likely
bypass provider selection and configuration, with unintended consequences.
This is particularly relevant for applications written to use the OpenSSL 3.0
FIPS module, as detailed below. Authors and maintainers of external engines are
strongly encouraged to refactor their code transforming engines into providers
using the new Provider API and avoiding deprecated methods.
=head3 Versioning Scheme
The OpenSSL versioning scheme has changed with the OpenSSL 3.0 release. The new
versioning scheme has this format:
For OpenSSL 1.1.1 and below, different patch levels were indicated by a letter
at the end of the release version number. This will no longer be used and
instead the patch level is indicated by the final number in the version. A
change in the second (MINOR) number indicates that new features may have been
added. OpenSSL versions with the same major number are API and ABI compatible.
If the major number changes then API and ABI compatibility is not guaranteed.
=head3 Other major new features
=head4 Certificate Management Protocol (CMP, RFC 4210)
This also covers CRMF (RFC 4211) and HTTP transfer (RFC 6712)
See L<openssl-cmp(1)> and L<OSSL_CMP_exec_certreq(3)> as starting points.
=head4 HTTP(S) client
A proper HTTP(S) client that supports GET and POST, redirection, plain and
ASN.1-encoded contents, proxies, and timeouts.
=head4 Key Derivation Function API (EVP_KDF)
This simplifies the process of adding new KDF and PRF implementations.
Previously KDF algorithms had been shoe-horned into using the EVP_PKEY object
which was not a logical mapping.
Existing applications that use KDF algorithms using EVP_PKEY
(scrypt, TLS1 PRF and HKDF) may be slower as they use an EVP_KDF bridge
All new applications should use the new L<EVP_KDF(3)> interface.
See also L<OSSL_PROVIDER-default(7)/Key Derivation Function (KDF)> and
L<OSSL_PROVIDER-FIPS(7)/Key Derivation Function (KDF)>.
=head4 Message Authentication Code API (EVP_MAC)
This simplifies the process of adding MAC implementations.
This includes a generic EVP_PKEY to EVP_MAC bridge, to facilitate the continued
use of MACs through raw private keys in functionality such as
L<EVP_DigestSign(3)> and L<EVP_DigestVerify(3)>.
All new applications should use the new L<EVP_MAC(3)> interface.
See also L<OSSL_PROVIDER-default(7)/Message Authentication Code (MAC)>
and L<OSSL_PROVIDER-FIPS(7)/Message Authentication Code (MAC)>.
=head4 Support for Linux Kernel TLS
In order to use KTLS, support for it must be compiled in using the 'enable-ktls'
compile time option. It must also be enabled at run time using the
=head4 New Algorithms
=over 4
=item KDF algorithms "SINGLE STEP" and "SSH"
=item MAC Algorithms "GMAC" and "KMAC"
See L<EVP_MAC-GMAC(7)> and L<EVP_MAC-KMAC(7)>.
=item KEM Algorithm "RSASVE"
See L<EVP_KEM-RSA(7)>.
=item Cipher Algorithm "AES-SIV"
See L<EVP_EncryptInit(3)/SIV Mode>.
=item AES Key Wrap inverse ciphers supported by EVP layer.
The inverse ciphers use AES decryption for wrapping, and AES encryption for
unwrapping. The algorithms are: "AES-128-WRAP-INV", "AES-192-WRAP-INV",
=item AES CTS cipher added to EVP layer.
The algorithms are "AES-128-CBC-CTS", "AES-192-CBC-CTS" and "AES-256-CBC-CTS".
CS1, CS2 and CS3 variants are supported.
=head4 CMS and PKCS#7 updates
=over 4
=item Added CAdES-BES signature verification support.
=item Added CAdES-BES signature scheme and attributes support (RFC 5126) to CMS API.
=item Added AuthEnvelopedData content type structure (RFC 5083) using AES_GCM
This uses the AES-GCM parameter (RFC 5084) for the Cryptographic Message Syntax.
Its purpose is to support encryption and decryption of a digital envelope that
is both authenticated and encrypted using AES GCM mode.
=item L<PKCS7_get_octet_string(3)> and L<PKCS7_type_is_other(3)> were made public.
=head4 PKCS#12 API updates
The default algorithms for pkcs12 creation with the PKCS12_create() function
were changed to more modern PBKDF2 and AES based algorithms. The default
MAC iteration count was changed to PKCS12_DEFAULT_ITER to make it equal
with the password-based encryption iteration count. The default digest
algorithm for the MAC computation was changed to SHA-256. The pkcs12
application now supports -legacy option that restores the previous
default algorithms to support interoperability with legacy systems.
Added enhanced PKCS#12 APIs which accept a library context `OSSL_LIB_CTX`
and (where relevant) a property query. Other APIs which handle PKCS#7 and
PKCS#8 objects have also been enhanced where required. This includes:
L<PKCS12_add_key_ex(3)>, L<PKCS12_add_safe_ex(3)>, L<PKCS12_add_safes_ex(3)>,
L<PKCS12_create_ex(3)>, L<PKCS12_decrypt_skey_ex(3)>, L<PKCS12_init_ex(3)>,
L<PKCS12_item_decrypt_d2i_ex(3)>, L<PKCS12_item_i2d_encrypt_ex(3)>,
L<PKCS12_key_gen_asc_ex(3)>, L<PKCS12_key_gen_uni_ex(3)>, L<PKCS12_key_gen_utf8_ex(3)>,
L<PKCS12_pack_p7encdata_ex(3)>, L<PKCS12_pbe_crypt_ex(3)>, L<PKCS12_PBE_keyivgen_ex(3)>,
L<PKCS12_SAFEBAG_create_pkcs8_encrypt_ex(3)>, L<PKCS5_pbe2_set_iv_ex(3)>,
L<PKCS5_pbe_set0_algor_ex(3)>, L<PKCS5_pbe_set_ex(3)>, L<PKCS5_pbkdf2_set_ex(3)>,
L<PKCS5_v2_PBE_keyivgen_ex(3)>, L<PKCS5_v2_scrypt_keyivgen_ex(3)>,
L<PKCS8_decrypt_ex(3)>, L<PKCS8_encrypt_ex(3)>, L<PKCS8_set0_pbe_ex(3)>.
As part of this change the EVP_PBE_xxx APIs can also accept a library
context and property query and will call an extended version of the key/IV
derivation function which supports these parameters. This includes
L<EVP_PBE_CipherInit_ex(3)>, L<EVP_PBE_find_ex(3)> and L<EVP_PBE_scrypt_ex(3)>.
=head4 Windows thread synchronization changes
Windows thread synchronization uses read/write primitives (SRWLock) when
supported by the OS, otherwise CriticalSection continues to be used.
=head4 Trace API
A new generic trace API has been added which provides support for enabling
instrumentation through trace output. This feature is mainly intended as an aid
for developers and is disabled by default. To utilize it, OpenSSL needs to be
configured with the `enable-trace` option.
If the tracing API is enabled, the application can activate trace output by
registering BIOs as trace channels for a number of tracing and debugging
categories. See L<OSSL_trace_enabled(3)>.
=head4 Key validation updates
L<EVP_PKEY_public_check(3)> and L<EVP_PKEY_param_check(3)> now work for
more key types. This includes RSA, DSA, ED25519, X25519, ED448 and X448.
Previously (in 1.1.1) they would return -2. For key types that do not have
parameters then L<EVP_PKEY_param_check(3)> will always return 1.
=head3 Other notable deprecations and changes
=head4 The function code part of an OpenSSL error code is no longer relevant
This code is now always set to zero. Related functions are deprecated.
=head4 STACK and HASH macro's have been cleaned up
The type-safe wrappers are declared everywhere and implemented once.
=head4 The RAND_DRBG subsystem has been removed
The new L<EVP_RAND(3)> is a partial replacement: the DRBG callback framework is
absent. The RAND_DRBG API did not fit well into the new provider concept as
implemented by EVP_RAND and EVP_RAND_CTX.
=head4 Removed FIPS_mode() and FIPS_mode_set()
These functions are legacy APIs that are not applicable to the new provider
model. Applications should instead use
L<EVP_default_properties_is_fips_enabled(3)> and
=head4 Key generation is slower
The Miller-Rabin test now uses 64 rounds, which is used for all prime generation,
including RSA key generation. This affects the time for larger keys sizes.
The default key generation method for the regular 2-prime RSA keys was changed
to the FIPS 186-4 B.3.6 method (Generation of Probable Primes with Conditions
Based on Auxiliary Probable Primes). This method is slower than the original
=head4 Change PBKDF2 to conform to SP800-132 instead of the older PKCS5 RFC2898
This checks that the salt length is at least 128 bits, the derived key length is
at least 112 bits, and that the iteration count is at least 1000.
For backwards compatibility these checks are disabled by default in the
default provider, but are enabled by default in the fips provider.
To enable or disable the checks see B<OSSL_KDF_PARAM_PKCS5> in
L<EVP_KDF-PBKDF2(7)>. The parameter can be set using L<EVP_KDF_derive(3)>.
=head4 Enforce a minimum DH modulus size of 512 bits
Smaller sizes now result in an error.
=head4 SM2 key changes
EC EVP_PKEYs with the SM2 curve have been reworked to automatically become
EVP_PKEY_SM2 rather than EVP_PKEY_EC.
Unlike in previous OpenSSL versions, this means that applications cannot
call `EVP_PKEY_set_alias_type(pkey, EVP_PKEY_SM2)` to get SM2 computations.
Parameter and key generation is also reworked to make it possible
to generate EVP_PKEY_SM2 parameters and keys. Applications must now generate
SM2 keys directly and must not create an EVP_PKEY_EC key first.
Validation of SM2 keys has been separated from the validation of regular EC
keys, allowing to improve the SM2 validation process to reject loaded private
keys that are not conforming to the SM2 ISO standard.
In particular, a private scalar `k` outside the range `1 <= k < n-1` is now
correctly rejected.
=head4 EVP_PKEY_set_alias_type() method has been removed
This function made a B<EVP_PKEY> object mutable after it had been set up. In
OpenSSL 3.0 it was decided that a provided key should not be able to change its
type, so this function has been removed.
=head4 Functions that return an internal key should be treated as read only
Functions such as L<EVP_PKEY_get0_RSA(3)> behave slightly differently in
OpenSSL 3.0. Previously they returned a pointer to the low-level key used
internally by libcrypto. From OpenSSL 3.0 this key may now be held in a
provider. Calling these functions will only return a handle on the internal key
where the EVP_PKEY was constructed using this key in the first place, for
example using a function or macro such as L<EVP_PKEY_assign_RSA(3)>,
L<EVP_PKEY_set1_RSA(3)>, etc.
Where the EVP_PKEY holds a provider managed key, then these functions now return
a cached copy of the key. Changes to the internal provider key that take place
after the first time the cached key is accessed will not be reflected back in
the cached copy. Similarly any changes made to the cached copy by application
code will not be reflected back in the internal provider key.
For the above reasons the keys returned from these functions should typically be
treated as read-only. To emphasise this the value returned from
L<EVP_PKEY_get0_RSA(3)>, L<EVP_PKEY_get0_DSA(3)>, L<EVP_PKEY_get0_EC_KEY(3)> and
L<EVP_PKEY_get0_DH(3)> have been made const. This may break some existing code.
Applications broken by this change should be modified. The preferred solution is
to refactor the code to avoid the use of these deprecated functions. Failing
this the code should be modified to use a const pointer instead.
The L<EVP_PKEY_get1_RSA(3)>, L<EVP_PKEY_get1_DSA(3)>, L<EVP_PKEY_get1_EC_KEY(3)>
and L<EVP_PKEY_get1_DH(3)> functions continue to return a non-const pointer to
enable them to be "freed". However they should also be treated as read-only.
=head4 The public key check has moved from EVP_PKEY_derive() to EVP_PKEY_derive_set_peer()
This may mean result in an error in L<EVP_PKEY_derive_set_peer(3)> rather than
during L<EVP_PKEY_derive(3)>.
To disable this check use EVP_PKEY_derive_set_peer_ex(dh, peer, 0).
=head4 The print format has cosmetic changes for some functions
The output from numerous "printing" functions such as L<X509_signature_print(3)>,
L<X509_print_ex(3)>, L<X509_CRL_print_ex(3)>, and other similar functions has been
amended such that there may be cosmetic differences between the output
observed in 1.1.1 and 3.0. This also applies to the "-text" output from the
x509 and crl applications.
=head4 Interactive mode from the `openssl` program has been removed
From now on, running it without arguments is equivalent to `openssl help`.
=head4 The error return values from some control calls (ctrl) have changed
One significant change is that controls which used to return -2 for
invalid inputs, now return -1 indicating a generic error condition instead.
=head4 DH and DHX key types have different settable parameters
Previously (in 1.1.1) these conflicting parameters were allowed, but will now
result in errors. See L<EVP_PKEY-DH(7)> for further details. This affects the
behaviour of L<openssl-genpkey(1)> for DH parameter generation.
=head2 Installation and Compilation
Please refer to the INSTALL.md file in the top of the distribution for
instructions on how to build and install OpenSSL 3.0. Please also refer to the
various platform specific NOTES files for your specific platform.
=head2 Upgrading from OpenSSL 1.1.1
Upgrading to OpenSSL 3.0 from OpenSSL 1.1.1 should be relatively straight
forward in most cases. The most likely area where you will encounter problems
is if you have used low level APIs in your code (as discussed above). In that
case you are likely to start seeing deprecation warnings when compiling your
application. If this happens you have 3 options:
=over 4
=item 1) Ignore the warnings. They are just warnings. The deprecated functions are still present and you may still use them. However be aware that they may be removed from a future version of OpenSSL.
=item 2) Suppress the warnings. Refer to your compiler documentation on how to do this.
=item 3) Remove your usage of the low level APIs. In this case you will need to rewrite your code to use the high level APIs instead
=head2 Upgrading from OpenSSL 1.0.2
Upgrading to OpenSSL 3.0 from OpenSSL 1.0.2 is likely to be significantly more
difficult. In addition to the issues discussed above in the section about
L</Upgrading from OpenSSL 1.1.1>, the main things to be aware of are:
=over 4
=item 1) The build and installation procedure has changed significantly.
Check the file INSTALL.md in the top of the installation for instructions on how
to build and install OpenSSL for your platform. Also read the various NOTES
files in the same directory, as applicable for your platform.
=item 2) Many structures have been made opaque in OpenSSL 3.0.
The structure definitions have been removed from the public header files and
moved to internal header files. In practice this means that you can no longer
stack allocate some structures. Instead they must be heap allocated through some
function call (typically those function names have a `_new` suffix to them).
Additionally you must use "setter" or "getter" functions to access the fields
within those structures.
For example code that previously looked like this:
EVP_MD_CTX md_ctx;
/* This line will now generate compiler errors */
The code needs to be amended to look like this:
EVP_MD_CTX *md_ctx;
md_ctx = EVP_MD_CTX_new();
=item 3) Support for TLSv1.3 has been added.
This has a number of implications for SSL/TLS applications. See the
L<TLS1.3 page|https://wiki.openssl.org/index.php/TLS1.3> for further details.
More details about the breaking changes between OpenSSL versions 1.0.2 and 1.1.0
can be found on the
L<OpenSSL 1.1.0 Changes page|https://wiki.openssl.org/index.php/OpenSSL_1.1.0_Changes>.
=head3 Upgrading from the OpenSSL 2.0 FIPS Object Module
The OpenSSL 2.0 FIPS Object Module was a separate download that had to be built
separately and then integrated into your main OpenSSL 1.0.2 build.
In OpenSSL 3.0 the FIPS support is fully integrated into the mainline version of
OpenSSL and is no longer a separate download. For further information see
L</Completing the installation of the FIPS Module>.
The function calls 'FIPS_mode()' and 'FIPS_mode_set()' have been removed
from OpenSSL 3.0. You should rewrite your application to not use them.
See L<fips_module(7)> and L<OSSL_PROVIDER-FIPS(7)> for details.
=head2 Completing the installation of the FIPS Module
The FIPS Module will be built and installed automatically if FIPS support has
been configured. The current documentation can be found in the
L<README-FIPS|https://github.com/openssl/openssl/blob/master/README-FIPS.md> file.
=head2 Programming
Applications written to work with OpenSSL 1.1.1 will mostly just work with
OpenSSL 3.0. However changes will be required if you want to take advantage of
some of the new features that OpenSSL 3.0 makes available. In order to do that
you need to understand some new concepts introduced in OpenSSL 3.0.
Read L<crypto(7)/Library contexts> for further information.
=head3 Library Context
A library context allows different components of a complex application to each
use a different library context and have different providers loaded with
different configuration settings.
See L<crypto(7)/Library contexts> for further info.
If the user creates an B<OSSL_LIB_CTX> via L<OSSL_LIB_CTX_new(3)> then many
functions may need to be changed to pass additional parameters to handle the
library context.
=head4 Using a Library Context - Old functions that should be changed
If a library context is needed then all EVP_* digest functions that return a
B<const EVP_MD *> such as EVP_sha256() should be replaced with a call to
L<EVP_MD_fetch(3)>. See L<crypto(7)/ALGORITHM FETCHING>.
If a library context is needed then all EVP_* cipher functions that return a
B<const EVP_CIPHER *> such as EVP_aes_128_cbc() should be replaced vith a call to
L<EVP_CIPHER_fetch(3)>. See L<crypto(7)/ALGORITHM FETCHING>.
Some functions can be passed an object that has already been set up with a library
context such as L<d2i_X509(3)>, L<d2i_X509_CRL(3)> and L<d2i_X509_REQ(3)>.
If NULL is passed instead then the created object will be set up with the
default library context. Use L<X509_new_ex(3)>, L<X509_CRL_new_ex(3)> and
L<X509_REQ_new_ex(3)> if a library context is required.
All functions listed below with a I<NAME> have a replacment function I<NAME_ex>
that takes B<OSSL_LIB_CTX> as an additional argument. Functions that have other
mappings are listed along with the respective name.
=over 4
=item L<ASN1_item_sign(3)> and L<ASN1_item_verify(3)>
=item L<BN_CTX_new(3)> and L<BN_CTX_secure_new(3)>
=item L<CMS_AuthEnvelopedData_create(3)>, L<CMS_ContentInfo_new(3)>, L<CMS_data_create(3)>,
L<CMS_digest_create(3)>, L<CMS_EncryptedData_encrypt(3)>, L<CMS_encrypt(3)>,
L<CMS_EnvelopedData_create(3)>, L<CMS_ReceiptRequest_create0(3)> and L<CMS_sign(3)>
=item L<CONF_modules_load_file(3)>
=item L<CTLOG_new(3)>, L<CTLOG_new_from_base64(3)> and L<CTLOG_STORE_new(3)>
=item L<CT_POLICY_EVAL_CTX_new(3)>
=item L<d2i_AutoPrivateKey(3)>, L<d2i_PrivateKey(3)> and L<d2i_PUBKEY(3)>
=item L<d2i_PrivateKey_bio(3)> and L<d2i_PrivateKey_fp(3)>
Use L<d2i_PrivateKey_ex_bio(3)> and L<d2i_PrivateKey_ex_fp(3)>
=item L<EC_GROUP_new(3)>
Use L<EC_GROUP_new_by_curve_name_ex(3)> or L<EC_GROUP_new_from_params(3)>.
=item L<EVP_DigestSignInit(3)> and L<EVP_DigestVerifyInit(3)>
=item L<EVP_PBE_CipherInit(3)>, L<EVP_PBE_find(3)> and L<EVP_PBE_scrypt(3)>
=item L<EVP_PKCS82PKEY(3)>
=item L<EVP_PKEY_CTX_new_id(3)>
Use L<EVP_PKEY_CTX_new_from_name(3)>
=item L<EVP_PKEY_derive_set_peer(3)>, L<EVP_PKEY_new_raw_private_key(3)>
and L<EVP_PKEY_new_raw_public_key(3)>
=item L<EVP_SignFinal(3)> and L<EVP_VerifyFinal(3)>
=item L<NCONF_new(3)>
=item L<OCSP_RESPID_match(3)> and L<OCSP_RESPID_set_by_key(3)>
=item L<OPENSSL_thread_stop(3)>
=item L<OSSL_STORE_open(3)>
=item L<PEM_read_bio_Parameters(3)>, L<PEM_read_bio_PrivateKey(3)>, L<PEM_read_bio_PUBKEY(3)>,
L<PEM_read_PrivateKey(3)> and L<PEM_read_PUBKEY(3)>
=item L<PEM_write_bio_PrivateKey(3)>, L<PEM_write_bio_PUBKEY(3)>, L<PEM_write_PrivateKey(3)>
and L<PEM_write_PUBKEY(3)>
=item L<PEM_X509_INFO_read_bio(3)> and L<PEM_X509_INFO_read(3)>
=item L<PKCS12_add_key(3)>, L<PKCS12_add_safe(3)>, L<PKCS12_add_safes(3)>,
L<PKCS12_create(3)>, L<PKCS12_decrypt_skey(3)>, L<PKCS12_init(3)>, L<PKCS12_item_decrypt_d2i(3)>,
L<PKCS12_item_i2d_encrypt(3)>, L<PKCS12_key_gen_asc(3)>, L<PKCS12_key_gen_uni(3)>,
L<PKCS12_key_gen_utf8(3)>, L<PKCS12_pack_p7encdata(3)>, L<PKCS12_pbe_crypt(3)>,
L<PKCS12_PBE_keyivgen(3)>, L<PKCS12_SAFEBAG_create_pkcs8_encrypt(3)>
=item L<PKCS5_pbe_set0_algor(3)>, L<PKCS5_pbe_set(3)>, L<PKCS5_pbe2_set_iv(3)>,
L<PKCS5_pbkdf2_set(3)> and L<PKCS5_v2_scrypt_keyivgen(3)>
=item L<PKCS7_encrypt(3)>, L<PKCS7_new(3)> and L<PKCS7_sign(3)>
=item L<PKCS8_decrypt(3)>, L<PKCS8_encrypt(3)> and L<PKCS8_set0_pbe(3)>
=item L<RAND_bytes(3)> and L<RAND_priv_bytes(3)>
=item L<SMIME_write_ASN1(3)>
=item L<TS_RESP_CTX_new(3)>
=item L<X509_CRL_new(3)>
=item L<X509_load_cert_crl_file(3)> and L<X509_load_cert_file(3)>
=item L<X509_LOOKUP_by_subject(3)> and L<X509_LOOKUP_ctrl(3)>
=item L<X509_NAME_hash(3)>
=item L<X509_new(3)>
=item L<X509_REQ_new(3)> and L<X509_REQ_verify(3)>
=item L<X509_STORE_CTX_new(3)>, L<X509_STORE_set_default_paths(3)>, L<X509_STORE_load_file(3)>,
L<X509_STORE_load_locations(3)> and L<X509_STORE_load_store(3)>
=head4 New functions that use a Library context
The following functions can be passed a library context if required.
Passing NULL will use the default library context.
=over 4
=item L<EVP_ASYM_CIPHER_fetch(3)> and L<EVP_ASYM_CIPHER_do_all_provided(3)>
=item L<EVP_CIPHER_fetch(3)> and L<EVP_CIPHER_do_all_provided(3)>
=item L<EVP_default_properties_enable_fips(3)> and
=item L<EVP_KDF_fetch(3)> and L<EVP_KDF_do_all_provided(3)>
=item L<EVP_KEM_fetch(3)> and L<EVP_KEM_do_all_provided(3)>
=item L<EVP_KEYEXCH_fetch(3)> and L<EVP_KEYEXCH_do_all_provided(3)>
=item L<EVP_KEYMGMT_fetch(3)> and L<EVP_KEYMGMT_do_all_provided(3)>
=item L<EVP_MAC_fetch(3)> and L<EVP_MAC_do_all_provided(3)>
=item L<EVP_MD_fetch(3)> and L<EVP_MD_do_all_provided(3)>
=item L<EVP_PKEY_CTX_new_from_pkey(3)>
=item L<EVP_PKEY_Q_keygen(3)>
=item L<EVP_Q_mac(3)> and L<EVP_Q_digest(3)>
=item L<EVP_RAND(3)> and L<EVP_RAND_do_all_provided(3)>
=item L<EVP_set_default_properties(3)>
=item L<EVP_SIGNATURE_fetch(3)> and L<EVP_SIGNATURE_do_all_provided(3)>
=item L<OSSL_CMP_CTX_new(3)> and L<OSSL_CMP_SRV_CTX_new(3)>
=item L<OSSL_CRMF_ENCRYPTEDVALUE_get1_encCert(3)>
=item L<OSSL_CRMF_MSG_create_popo(3)> and L<OSSL_CRMF_MSGS_verify_popo(3)>
=item L<OSSL_CRMF_pbm_new(3)> and L<OSSL_CRMF_pbmp_new(3)>
=item L<OSSL_DECODER_CTX_add_extra(3)> and L<OSSL_DECODER_CTX_new_for_pkey(3)>
=item L<OSSL_DECODER_fetch(3)> and L<OSSL_DECODER_do_all_provided(3)>
=item L<OSSL_ENCODER_CTX_add_extra(3)>
=item L<OSSL_ENCODER_fetch(3)> and L<OSSL_ENCODER_do_all_provided(3)>
=item L<OSSL_LIB_CTX_free(3)>, L<OSSL_LIB_CTX_load_config(3)> and L<OSSL_LIB_CTX_set0_default(3)>
=item L<OSSL_PROVIDER_add_builtin(3)>, L<OSSL_PROVIDER_available(3)>,
L<OSSL_PROVIDER_do_all(3)>, L<OSSL_PROVIDER_load(3)>,
L<OSSL_PROVIDER_set_default_search_path(3)> and L<OSSL_PROVIDER_try_load(3)>
=item L<OSSL_SELF_TEST_get_callback(3)> and L<OSSL_SELF_TEST_set_callback(3)>
=item L<OSSL_STORE_attach(3)>
=item L<OSSL_STORE_LOADER_fetch(3)> and L<OSSL_STORE_LOADER_do_all_provided(3)>
=item L<RAND_get0_primary(3)>, L<RAND_get0_private(3)>, L<RAND_get0_public(3)>,
L<RAND_set_DRBG_type(3)> and L<RAND_set_seed_source_type(3)>
=head3 Providers
Providers are described in detail here L<crypto(7)/Providers>.
See also L<crypto(7)/OPENSSL PROVIDERS>.
=head3 Fetching algorithms and property queries
Implicit and Explicit Fetching is described in detail here
=head3 Deprecation of Low Level Functions
A significant number of APIs have been deprecated in OpenSSL 3.0.
This section describes some common categories of deprecations.
See L</Deprecated function mappings> for the list of deprecated functions
that refer to these categories.
=head4 Providers are a replacement for engines and low-level method overrides
Any accessor that uses an ENGINE is deprecated (such as EVP_PKEY_set1_engine()).
Applications using engines should instead use providers.
Before providers were added algorithms were overriden by changing the methods
used by algorithms. All these methods such as RSA_new_method() and RSA_meth_new()
are now deprecated and can be replaced by using providers instead.
=head4 Deprecated i2d and d2i functions for low-level key types
Any i2d and d2i functions such as d2i_DHparams() that take a low-level key type
have been deprecated. Applications should instead use the L<OSSL_DECODER(3)> and
L<OSSL_ENCODER(3)> APIs to read and write files.
See L<d2i_RSAPrivateKey(3)/Migration> for further details.
=head4 Deprecated low-level key object getters and setters
Applications that set or get low-level key objects (such as EVP_PKEY_set1_DH()
or EVP_PKEY_get0()) should instead use the OSSL_ENCODER
(See L<OSSL_ENCODER_to_bio(3)>) or OSSL_DECODER (See L<OSSL_DECODER_from_bio(3)>)
APIs, or alternatively use L<EVP_PKEY_fromdata(3)> or L<EVP_PKEY_todata(3)>.
=head4 Deprecated low-level key parameter getters
Functions that access low-level objects directly such as L<RSA_get0_n(3)> are now
deprecated. Applications should use one of L<EVP_PKEY_get_bn_param(3)>,
L<EVP_PKEY_get_int_param(3)>, l<EVP_PKEY_get_size_t_param(3)>,
L<EVP_PKEY_get_utf8_string_param(3)>, L<EVP_PKEY_get_octet_string_param(3)> or
L<EVP_PKEY_get_params(3)> to access fields from an EVP_PKEY.
Gettable parameters are listed in L<EVP_PKEY-RSA(7)/Common RSA parameters>,
L<EVP_PKEY-DH(7)/DH parameters>, L<EVP_PKEY-DSA(7)/DSA parameters>,
L<EVP_PKEY-FFC(7)/FFC parameters>, L<EVP_PKEY-EC(7)/Common EC parameters> and
L<EVP_PKEY-X25519(7)/Common X25519, X448, ED25519 and ED448 parameters>.
Applications may also use L<EVP_PKEY_todata(3)> to return all fields.
=head4 Deprecated low-level key parameter setters
Functions that access low-level objects directly such as L<RSA_set0_crt_params(3)>
are now deprecated. Applications should use L<EVP_PKEY_fromdata(3)> to create
new keys from user provided key data. Keys should be immutable once they are
created, so if required the user may use L<EVP_PKEY_todata(3)>, L<OSSL_PARAM_merge(3)>,
and L<EVP_PKEY_fromdata(3)> to create a modified key.
See L<EVP_PKEY-DH(7)/Examples> for more information.
See L</Deprecated low-level key generation functions> for information on
generating a key using parameters.
=head4 Deprecated low-level object creation
Low-level objects were created using methods such as L<RSA_new(3)>,
L<RSA_up_ref(3)> and L<RSA_free(3)>. Applications should instead use the
high-level EVP_PKEY APIs, e.g. L<EVP_PKEY_new(3)>, L<EVP_PKEY_up_ref(3)> and
See also L<EVP_PKEY_CTX_new_from_name(3)> and L<EVP_PKEY_CTX_new_from_pkey(3)>.
EVP_PKEY's may be created in a variety of ways:
See also L</Deprecated low-level key generation functions>,
L</Deprecated low-level key reading and writing functions> and
L</Deprecated low-level key parameter setters>.
=head4 Deprecated low-level encryption functions
Low-level encryption functions such as L<AES_encrypt(3)> and L<AES_decrypt(3)>
have been informally discouraged from use for a long time. Applications should
instead use the high level EVP APIs L<EVP_EncryptInit_ex(3)>,
L<EVP_EncryptUpdate(3)>, and L<EVP_EncryptFinal_ex(3)> or
L<EVP_DecryptInit_ex(3)>, L<EVP_DecryptUpdate(3)> and L<EVP_DecryptFinal_ex(3)>.
=head4 Deprecated low-level digest functions
Use of low-level digest functions such as L<SHA1_Init(3)> have been
informally discouraged from use for a long time. Applications should instead
use the the high level EVP APIs L<EVP_DigestInit_ex(3)>, L<EVP_DigestUpdate(3)>
and L<EVP_DigestFinal_ex(3)>, or the quick one-shot L<EVP_Q_digest(3)>.
Note that the functions L<SHA1(3)>, L<SHA224(3)>, L<SHA256(3)>, L<SHA384(3)>
and L<SHA512(3)> have changed to macros that use L<EVP_Q_digest(3)>.
=head4 Deprecated low-level signing functions
Use of low-level signing functions such as L<DSA_sign(3)> have been
informally discouraged for a long time. Instead applications should use
L<EVP_DigestSign(3)> and L<EVP_DigestVerify(3)>.
=head4 Deprecated low-level MAC functions
Low-level mac functions such as L<CMAC_Init(3)> are deprecated.
Applications should instead use the new L<EVP_MAC(3)> interface, using
L<EVP_MAC_CTX_new(3)>, L<EVP_MAC_CTX_free(3)>, L<EVP_MAC_init(3)>,
L<EVP_MAC_update(3)> and L<EVP_MAC_final(3)> or the single-shot MAC function
L<EVP_MAC-KMAC(7)>, L<EVP_MAC-BLAKE2(7)>, L<EVP_MAC-Poly1305(7)> and
L<EVP_MAC-Siphash(7)> for additional information.
Note that the one-shot method HMAC() is still available for compatability purposes.
=head4 Deprecated low-level validation functions
Low-level validation functions such as L<DH_check(3)> have been informally
discouraged from use for a long time. Applications should instead use the high-level
EVP_PKEY APIs such as L<EVP_PKEY_check(3)>, L<EVP_PKEY_param_check(3)>,
L<EVP_PKEY_param_check_quick(3)>, L<EVP_PKEY_public_check(3)>,
L<EVP_PKEY_public_check_quick(3)>, L<EVP_PKEY_private_check(3)>,
and L<EVP_PKEY_pairwise_check(3)>.
=head4 Deprecated low-level key exchange functions
Many low-level functions have been informally discouraged from use for a long
time. Applications should instead use L<EVP_PKEY_derive(3)>.
=head4 Deprecated low-level key generation functions
Many low-level functions have been informally discouraged from use for a long
time. Applications should instead use L<EVP_PKEY_keygen_init(3)> and
L<EVP_PKEY_generate(3)> as described in L<EVP_PKEY-DSA(7)>, L<EVP_PKEY-DH(7)>,
L<EVP_PKEY-RSA(7)>, L<EVP_PKEY-EC(7)> and L<EVP_PKEY-X25519(7)>.
The 'quick' one-shot function L<EVP_PKEY_Q_keygen(3)> and macros for the most
common cases: <EVP_RSA_gen(3)> and L<EVP_EC_gen(3)> may also be used.
=head4 Deprecated low-level key reading and writing functions
Use of low-level objects (such as DSA) has been informally discouraged from use
for a long time. Functions to read and write these low-level objects (such as
PEM_read_DSA_PUBKEY()) should be replaced. Applications should instead use
L<OSSL_ENCODER_to_bio(3)> and L<OSSL_DECODER_from_bio(3)>.
=head4 Deprecated low-level key printing functions
Use of low-level objects (such as DSA) has been informally discouraged from use
for a long time. Functions to print these low-level objects such as
DSA_print() should be replaced with the equivalent EVP_PKEY functions.
Application should use one of L<EVP_PKEY_print_public(3)>,
L<EVP_PKEY_print_private(3)>, L<EVP_PKEY_print_params(3)>,
L<EVP_PKEY_print_public_fp(3)>, L<EVP_PKEY_print_private_fp(3)> or
L<EVP_PKEY_print_params_fp(3)>. Note that internally these use
L<OSSL_ENCODER_to_bio(3)> and L<OSSL_DECODER_from_bio(3)>.
=head3 Deprecated function mappings
The following functions have been deprecated in 3.0.
=over 4
=item AES_bi_ige_encrypt and AES_ige_encrypt
There is no replacement for the IGE functions. New code should not use these modes.
These undocumented functions were never integrated into the EVP layer.
They implemented the AES Infinite Garble Extension (IGE) mode and AES
Bi-directional IGE mode. These modes were never formally standardised and
usage of these functions is believed to be very small. In particular
AES_bi_ige_encrypt() has a known bug. It accepts 2 AES keys, but only one
is ever used. The security implications are believed to be minimal, but
this issue was never fixed for backwards compatibility reasons.
=item AES_encrypt, AES_decrypt, AES_set_encrypt_key, AES_set_decrypt_key,
AES_cbc_encrypt, AES_cfb128_encrypt, AES_cfb1_encrypt, AES_cfb8_encrypt,
AES_ecb_encrypt and AES_ofb128_encrypt
=item AES_unwrap_key, AES_wrap_key
See L</Deprecated low-level encryption functions>
=item AES_options
There is no replacement. It returned a string indicating if the AES code was unrolled.
=item ASN1_digest, ASN1_sign and ASN1_verify
There are no replacements. These old functions are not used, and could be
disabled with the macro NO_ASN1_OLD since OpenSSL 0.9.7.
=item ASN1_STRING_length_set
Use L<ASN1_STRING_set(3)> or L<ASN1_STRING_set0(3)> instead.
This was a potentially unsafe function that could change the bounds of a
previously passed in pointer.
=item BF_encrypt, BF_decrypt, BF_set_key, BF_cbc_encrypt, BF_cfb64_encrypt,
BF_ecb_encrypt and BF_ofb64_encrypt
See L</Deprecated low-level encryption functions>.
The Blowfish algorithm has been moved to the L<Legacy Provider|/Legacy Algorithms>.
=item BF_options
There is no replacement. This option returned a constant string.
=item BN_is_prime_ex and BN_is_prime_fasttest_ex
Use L<BN_check_prime(3)> which that avoids possible misuse and always uses at least
64 rounds of the Miller-Rabin primality test.
=item BN_pseudo_rand and BN_pseudo_rand_range
Use L<BN_rand(3)> and L<BN_rand_range(3)>.
=item BN_X931_derive_prime_ex, BN_X931_generate_prime_ex and BN_X931_generate_Xpq
There are no replacements for these low-level functions. They were used internally
by RSA_X931_derive_ex() and RSA_X931_generate_key_ex() which are also deprecated.
Use L<EVP_PKEY_keygen(3)> instead.
=item Camellia_encrypt, Camellia_decrypt, Camellia_set_key,
Camellia_cbc_encrypt, Camellia_cfb128_encrypt, Camellia_cfb1_encrypt,
Camellia_cfb8_encrypt, Camellia_ctr128_encrypt, Camellia_ecb_encrypt and
See L</Deprecated low-level encryption functions>.
=item CAST_encrypt, CAST_decrypt, CAST_set_key, CAST_cbc_encrypt,
CAST_cfb64_encrypt, CAST_ecb_encrypt and CAST_ofb64_encrypt
See L</Deprecated low-level encryption functions>.
The CAST algorithm has been moved to the L<Legacy Provider|/Legacy Algorithms>.
=item CMAC_CTX_new, CMAC_CTX_cleanup, CMAC_CTX_copy, CMAC_CTX_free and
See L</Deprecated low-level MAC functions>.
=item CMAC_Init, CMAC_Update, CMAC_Final and CMAC_resume.
See L</Deprecated low-level MAC functions>.
=item CRYPTO_mem_ctrl, CRYPTO_mem_debug_free, CRYPTO_mem_debug_malloc,
CRYPTO_mem_debug_pop, CRYPTO_mem_debug_push, CRYPTO_mem_debug_realloc,
CRYPTO_mem_leaks, CRYPTO_mem_leaks_cb, CRYPTO_mem_leaks_fp and
Memory-leak checking has been deprecated in favor of more modern development
tools, such as compiler memory and leak sanitizers or Valgrind.
=item d2i_DHparams, d2i_DHxparams, d2i_DSAparams, d2i_DSAPrivateKey,
d2i_DSAPrivateKey_bio, d2i_DSAPrivateKey_fp, d2i_DSA_PUBKEY, d2i_DSA_PUBKEY_bio,
d2i_DSA_PUBKEY_fp, d2i_DSAPublicKey,
d2i_ECParameters, d2i_ECPrivateKey, d2i_ECPrivateKey_bio, d2i_ECPrivateKey_fp,
d2i_EC_PUBKEY, d2i_EC_PUBKEY_bio, d2i_EC_PUBKEY_fp, o2i_ECPublicKey,
d2i_RSAPrivateKey, d2i_RSAPrivateKey_bio, d2i_RSAPrivateKey_fp,
d2i_RSA_PUBKEY, d2i_RSA_PUBKEY_bio, d2i_RSA_PUBKEY_fp, d2i_RSAPublicKey,
d2i_RSAPublicKey_bio and d2i_RSAPublicKey_fp
See L</Deprecated i2d and d2i functions for low-level key types>
=item DES_crypt, DES_fcrypt, DES_encrypt1, DES_encrypt2, DES_encrypt3,
DES_decrypt3, DES_ede3_cbc_encrypt, DES_ede3_cfb64_encrypt,
DES_ecb_encrypt, DES_ecb3_encrypt, DES_ofb64_encrypt, DES_ofb_encrypt,
DES_cfb64_encrypt DES_cfb_encrypt, DES_cbc_encrypt, DES_ncbc_encrypt,
DES_pcbc_encrypt, DES_xcbc_encrypt, DES_cbc_cksum, DES_quad_cksum,
DES_check_key_parity, DES_is_weak_key, DES_key_sched, DES_options,
DES_random_key, DES_set_key, DES_set_key_checked, DES_set_key_unchecked,
DES_set_odd_parity, DES_string_to_2keys, DES_string_to_key
See L</Deprecated low-level encryption functions>.
Algorithms for "DESX-CBC", "DES-ECB", "DES-CBC", "DES-OFB", "DES-CFB",
"DES-CFB1" and "DES-CFB8" have been moved to the L<Legacy Provider|/Legacy Algorithms>.
=item DH_bits, DH_security_bits and DH_size
Use L<EVP_PKEY_bits(3)>, L<EVP_PKEY_security_bits(3)> and L<EVP_PKEY_size(3)>.
=item DH_check, DH_check_ex, DH_check_params, DH_check_params_ex,
DH_check_pub_key and DH_check_pub_key_ex
See L</Deprecated low-level validation functions>
=item DH_clear_flags, DH_test_flags and DH_set_flags
The DH_FLAG_CACHE_MONT_P flag has been deprecated without replacement.
The DH_FLAG_TYPE_DH and DH_FLAG_TYPE_DHX have been deprecated.
Use EVP_PKEY_is_a() to determine the type of a key.
There is no replacement for setting these flags.
=item DH_compute_key and DH_compute_key_padded
See L</Deprecated low-level key exchange functions>.
=item DH_new, DH_new_by_nid, DH_free, DH_up_ref
See L</Deprecated low-level object creation>
=item DH_generate_key and DH_generate_parameters_ex
See L</Deprecated low-level key generation functions>.
=item DH_get0_pqg, DH_get0_p, DH_get0_q, DH_get0_g, DH_get0_key,
DH_get0_priv_key, DH_get0_pub_key, DH_get_length and DH_get_nid
See L</Deprecated low-level key parameter getters>
=item DH_get_1024_160, DH_get_2048_224 and DH_get_2048_256
Applications should instead set the B<OSSL_PKEY_PARAM_GROUP_NAME> as specified in
L<EVP_PKEY-DH(7)/DH parameters>) to one of "dh_1024_160", "dh_2048_224" or
"dh_2048_256" when generating a DH key.
=item DH_KDF_X9_42
Applications should use L<EVP_PKEY_CTX_set_dh_kdf_type(3)> instead.
=item DH_get_default_method, DH_get0_engine, DH_meth_*, DH_new_method, DH_OpenSSL,
DH_get_ex_data, DH_set_default_method, DH_set_method and DH_set_ex_data
See L</Providers are a replacement for engines and low-level method overrides>
=item DHparams_print and DHparams_print_fp
See L</Deprecated low-level key printing functions>
=item DH_set0_key, DH_set0_pqg, DH_set_length
See L</Deprecated low-level key parameter setters>
=item DSA_bits, DSA_security_bits and DSA_size
Use L<EVP_PKEY_bits(3)>, L<EVP_PKEY_security_bits(3)> and L<EVP_PKEY_size(3)>.
=item DHparams_dup, DSA_dup_DH
There is no direct replacement. Applications may use L<EVP_PKEY_copy_parameters(3)>
and L<EVP_PKEY_dup(3)> instead.
=item DSA_generate_key and DSA_generate_parameters_ex
See L</Deprecated low-level key generation functions>.
=item DSA_get0_engine, DSA_get_default_method, DSA_get_ex_data, DSA_get_method,
DSA_meth_*, DSA_new_method, DSA_OpenSSL, DSA_set_default_method, DSA_set_ex_data
and DSA_set_method
See L</Providers are a replacement for engines and low-level method overrides>.
=item DSA_get0_p, DSA_get0_q, DSA_get0_g, DSA_get0_pqg, DSA_get0_key,
DSA_get0_priv_key and DSA_get0_pub_key
See L</Deprecated low-level key parameter getters>.
=item DSA_new, DSA_free, DSA_up_ref
See L</Deprecated low-level object creation>
=item DSAparams_dup
There is no direct replacement. Applications may use L<EVP_PKEY_copy_parameters(3)>
and L<EVP_PKEY_dup(3)> instead.
=item DSAparams_print, DSAparams_print_fp, DSA_print and DSA_print_fp
See L</Deprecated low-level key printing functions>
=item DSA_set0_key, DSA_set0_pqg
See L</Deprecated low-level key parameter setters>
=item DSA_set_flags, DSA_clear_flags, DSA_test_flags
The DSA_FLAG_CACHE_MONT_P flag has been deprecated without replacement.
=item DSA_sign, DSA_do_sign, DSA_sign_setup, DSA_verify and DSA_do_verify
See L</Deprecated low-level signing functions>.
=item ECDH_compute_key
See L</Deprecated low-level key exchange functions>.
=item ECDH_KDF_X9_62
Applications may either set this using the helper function
L<EVP_PKEY_CTX_set_ecdh_kdf_type(3)> or by setting an B<OSSL_PARAM> using the
"kdf-type" as shown in L<EVP_KEYEXCH-ECDH(7)/EXAMPLES>
=item ECDSA_sign, ECDSA_sign_ex, ECDSA_sign_setup, ECDSA_do_sign, ECDSA_do_sign_ex,
ECDSA_verify and ECDSA_do_verify
See L</Deprecated low-level signing functions>.
=item ECDSA_size
Applications should use L<EVP_PKEY_size(3)>.
=item EC_GF2m_simple_method, EC_GFp_mont_method, EC_GFp_nist_method,
EC_GFp_nistp224_method, EC_GFp_nistp256_method, EC_GFp_nistp521_method and
There are no replacements for these functions. Applications should rely on the
library automatically assigning a suitable method internally when an EC_GROUP
is constructed.
=item EC_GROUP_clear_free
Use L<EC_GROUP_free(3)> instead.
=item EC_GROUP_get_curve_GF2m, EC_GROUP_get_curve_GFp, EC_GROUP_set_curve_GF2m
and EC_GROUP_set_curve_GFp
Applications should use L<EC_GROUP_get_curve(3)> and L<EC_GROUP_set_curve(3)>.
=item EC_GROUP_have_precompute_mult, EC_GROUP_precompute_mult and EC_KEY_precompute_mult
These functions are not widely used. Applications should instead switch to
named curves which OpenSSL has hardcoded lookup tables for.
=item EC_GROUP_new, EC_GROUP_method_of, EC_POINT_method_of
EC_METHOD is now an internal-only concept and a suitable EC_METHOD is assigned
internally without application intervention.
Users of EC_GROUP_new() should switch to a different suitable constructor.
=item EC_KEY_can_sign
Applications should use L<EVP_PKEY_can_sign(3)> instead.
=item EC_KEY_check_key
See L</Deprecated low-level validation functions>
=item EC_KEY_set_flags, EC_KEY_get_flags and EC_KEY_clear_flags
See L<EVP_PKEY-EC(7)/Common EC parameters> which handles flags as seperate
=item EC_KEY_dup, EC_KEY_copy
There is no direct replacement. Applications may use L<EVP_PKEY_copy_parameters(3)>
and L<EVP_PKEY_dup(3)> instead.
=item EC_KEY_decoded_from_explicit_params
There is no replacement.
=item EC_KEY_generate_key
See L</Deprecated low-level key generation functions>.
=item EC_KEY_get0_group, EC_KEY_get0_private_key, EC_KEY_get0_public_key,
EC_KEY_get_conv_form and EC_KEY_get_enc_flags
See L</Deprecated low-level key parameter getters>.
=item EC_KEY_get0_engine, EC_KEY_get_default_method, EC_KEY_get_method,
EC_KEY_new_method, EC_KEY_get_ex_data, EC_KEY_OpenSSL, EC_KEY_set_ex_data,
EC_KEY_set_default_method, EC_KEY_METHOD_*, EC_KEY_set_method
See L</Providers are a replacement for engines and low-level method overrides>
=item EC_METHOD_get_field_type
Use L<EC_GROUP_get_field_type(3)> instead.
See L</Providers are a replacement for engines and low-level method overrides>
=item EC_KEY_key2buf, EC_KEY_oct2key, EC_KEY_oct2priv, EC_KEY_priv2buf and EC_KEY_priv2oct
There are no replacements for these.
=item EC_KEY_new, EC_KEY_new_by_curve_name, EC_KEY_free, EC_KEY_up_ref
See L</Deprecated low-level object creation>
=item EC_KEY_print, EC_KEY_print_fp
See L</Deprecated low-level key printing functions>
=item EC_KEY_set_asn1_flag, EC_KEY_set_conv_form, EC_KEY_set_enc_flags
See L</Deprecated low-level key parameter setters>.
=item EC_KEY_set_group, EC_KEY_set_private_key, EC_KEY_set_public_key, EC_KEY_set_public_key_affine_coordinates
See L</Deprecated low-level key parameter setters>.
=item ECParameters_print, ECParameters_print_fp, ECPKParameters_print and
See L</Deprecated low-level key printing functions>
=item EC_POINT_bn2point and EC_POINT_point2bn
These functions were not particularly useful, since EC point serialization
formats are not individual big-endian integers.
=item EC_POINT_get_affine_coordinates_GF2m, EC_POINT_get_affine_coordinates_GFp,
EC_POINT_set_affine_coordinates_GF2m and EC_POINT_set_affine_coordinates_GFp
Applications should use L<EC_POINT_get_affine_coordinates(3)> and
L<EC_POINT_set_affine_coordinates(3)> instead.
=item EC_POINT_get_Jprojective_coordinates_GFp and EC_POINT_set_Jprojective_coordinates_GFp
These functions are not widely used. Applications should instead use the
L<EC_POINT_set_affine_coordinates(3)> and L<EC_POINT_get_affine_coordinates(3)>
=item EC_POINT_make_affine and EC_POINTs_make_affine
There is no replacement. These functions were not widely used, and OpenSSL
automatically performs this conversion when needed.
=item EC_POINT_set_compressed_coordinates_GF2m and EC_POINT_set_compressed_coordinates_GFp
Applications should use L<EC_POINT_set_compressed_coordinates(3)> instead.
=item EC_POINTs_mul
This function is not widely used. Applications should instead use the
L<EC_POINT_mul(3)> function.
=item ENGINE_*
All engine functions are deprecated. An engine should be rewritten as a provider.
See L</Providers are a replacement for engines and low-level method overrides>.
=item ERR_load_*, ERR_func_error_string, ERR_get_error_line,
ERR_get_error_line_data and ERR_get_state
OpenSSL now loads error strings automatically so these functions are not needed.
=item ERR_peek_error_line_data and ERR_peek_last_error_line_data
The new functions are L<ERR_peek_error_func(3)>, L<ERR_peek_last_error_func(3)>,
L<ERR_peek_error_data(3)>, L<ERR_peek_last_error_data(3)>, L<ERR_get_error_all(3)>,
L<ERR_peek_error_all(3)> and L<ERR_peek_last_error_all(3)>.
Applications should use L<ERR_get_error_all(3)>, or pick information
with ERR_peek functions and finish off with getting the error code by using
=item EVP_CIPHER_CTX_iv, EVP_CIPHER_CTX_iv_noconst and EVP_CIPHER_CTX_original_iv
Applications should instead use L<EVP_CIPHER_CTX_get_updated_iv(3)>,
L<EVP_CIPHER_CTX_get_updated_iv(3)> and L<EVP_CIPHER_CTX_get_original_iv(3)>
See L<EVP_CIPHER_CTX_get_original_iv(3)> for further information.
=item EVP_CIPHER_meth_*, EVP_MD_CTX_set_update_fn, EVP_MD_CTX_update_fn, and EVP_MD_meth_*
See L</Providers are a replacement for engines and low-level method overrides>.
These control operations are not invoked by the OpenSSL library anymore and
are replaced by direct checks of the key operation against the key type
when the operation is initialized.
=item EVP_PKEY_CTX_get0_dh_kdf_ukm and EVP_PKEY_CTX_get0_ecdh_kdf_ukm
See the "kdf-ukm" item in L<EVP_KEYEXCH-DH(7)/DH key exchange parameters> and
L<EVP_KEYEXCH-ECDH(7)/ECDH Key Exchange parameters>.
These functions are obsolete and should not be required.
=item EVP_PKEY_CTX_set_rsa_keygen_pubexp
Applications should use L<EVP_PKEY_CTX_set1_rsa_keygen_pubexp(3)> instead.
=item EVP_PKEY_cmp and EVP_PKEY_cmp_parameters()
Applications should use L<EVP_PKEY_eq(3)> and L<EVP_PKEY_parameters_eq(3)> instead.
See L<EVP_PKEY_copy_parameters(3)> for further details.
=item EVP_PKEY_encrypt_old, EVP_PKEY_decrypt_old,
Applications should use L<EVP_PKEY_encrypt_init(3)> and L<EVP_PKEY_encrypt(3)> or
L<EVP_PKEY_decrypt_init(3)> and L<EVP_PKEY_decrypt(3)> instead.
=item EVP_PKEY_get0
This function returns NULL if the key comes from a provider.
=item EVP_PKEY_get0_DH, EVP_PKEY_get0_DSA, EVP_PKEY_get0_EC_KEY, EVP_PKEY_get0_RSA,
EVP_PKEY_get0_hmac, EVP_PKEY_get0_poly1305 and EVP_PKEY_get0_siphash
See L</Functions that return an internal key should be treated as read only>.
=item EVP_PKEY_meth_*
See L</Providers are a replacement for engines and low-level method overrides>.
=item EVP_PKEY_new_CMAC_key
See L</Deprecated low-level MAC functions>.
=item EVP_PKEY_assign, EVP_PKEY_set1_DH, EVP_PKEY_set1_DSA, EVP_PKEY_set1_EC_KEY and EVP_PKEY_set1_RSA
See L</Deprecated low-level key object getters and setters>
=item EVP_PKEY_set1_tls_encodedpoint() and EVP_PKEY_get1_tls_encodedpoint().
These functions were previously used by libssl to set or get an encoded public
key into/from an EVP_PKEY object. With OpenSSL 3.0 these are replaced by the more
generic functions L<EVP_PKEY_set1_encoded_public_key(3)> and
The old versions have been converted to deprecated macros that just call the
new functions.
=item EVP_PKEY_set1_engine and EVP_PKEY_get0_engine
See L</Providers are a replacement for engines and low-level method overrides>.
=item EVP_PKEY_set_alias_type
This function has been removed. There is no replacement.
See L</EVP_PKEY_set_alias_type() method has been removed>
=item HMAC_Init_ex, HMAC_Update, HMAC_Final, HMAC_size
See L</Deprecated low-level MAC functions>.
=item HMAC_CTX_new, HMAC_CTX_free, HMAC_CTX_copy, HMAC_CTX_reset,
HMAC_CTX_set_flags and HMAC_CTX_get_md
See L</Deprecated low-level MAC functions>.
=item i2d_DHparams, i2d_DHxparams
See L</Deprecated low-level key reading and writing functions>
and L<d2i_RSAPrivateKey(3)/Migration>
=item i2d_DSAparams, i2d_DSAPrivateKey, i2d_DSAPrivateKey_bio,
i2d_DSAPrivateKey_fp, i2d_DSA_PUBKEY, i2d_DSA_PUBKEY_bio, i2d_DSA_PUBKEY_fp and
See L</Deprecated low-level key reading and writing functions>
and L<d2i_RSAPrivateKey(3)/Migration>
=item i2d_ECParameters, i2d_ECPrivateKey, i2d_ECPrivateKey_bio,
i2d_ECPrivateKey_fp, i2d_EC_PUBKEY, i2d_EC_PUBKEY_bio, i2d_EC_PUBKEY_fp and
See L</Deprecated low-level key reading and writing functions>
and L<d2i_RSAPrivateKey(3)/Migration>
=item i2d_RSAPrivateKey, i2d_RSAPrivateKey_bio, i2d_RSAPrivateKey_fp.
i2d_RSA_PUBKEY, i2d_RSA_PUBKEY_bio, i2d_RSA_PUBKEY_fp, i2d_RSAPublicKey
i2d_RSAPublicKey_bio and i2d_RSAPublicKey_fp
See L</Deprecated low-level key reading and writing functions>
and L<d2i_RSAPrivateKey(3)/Migration>
=item IDEA_encrypt, IDEA_set_decrypt_key, IDEA_set_encrypt_key,
IDEA_cbc_encrypt, IDEA_cfb64_encrypt, IDEA_ecb_encrypt and IDEA_ofb64_encrypt
See L</Deprecated low-level encryption functions>.
IDEA has been moved to the L<Legacy Provider|/Legacy Algorithms>.
=item IDEA_options
There is no replacement. This function returned a constant string.
=item MD2, MD2_Init, MD2_Update and MD2_Final
See L</Deprecated low-level encryption functions>.
MD2 has been moved to the L<Legacy Provider|/Legacy Algorithms>.
=item MD2_options
There is no replacement. This function returned a constant string.
=item MD4, MD4_Init, MD4_Update, MD4_Final and MD4_Transform
See L</Deprecated low-level encryption functions>.
MD4 has been moved to the L<Legacy Provider|/Legacy Algorithms>.
=item MDC2, MDC2_Init, MDC2_Update and MDC2_Final
See L</Deprecated low-level encryption functions>.
MDC2 has been moved to the L<Legacy Provider|/Legacy Algorithms>.
=item MD5, MD5_Init, MD5_Update, MD5_Final and MD5_Transform
See L</Deprecated low-level encryption functions>.
=item NCONF_WIN32
This undocumented function has no replacement.
See L<config(5)/HISTORY> for more details.
=item OCSP_parse_url()
Use L<OSSL_HTTP_parse_url(3)> instead.
=item OCSP_REQ_CTX type and OCSP_REQ_CTX_*() methods.
These methods were used to collect all necessary data to form a HTTP request,
and to perform the HTTP transfer with that request. With OpenSSL 3.0, the
type is OSSL_HTTP_REQ_CTX, and the deprecated functions are replaced
with OSSL_HTTP_REQ_CTX_*(). See L<OSSL_HTTP_REQ_CTX(3)> for additional details.
=item OPENSSL_fork_child, OPENSSL_fork_parent and OPENSSL_fork_prepare
There is no replacement for these functions. These pthread fork support methods
were unused by OpenSSL.
=item OSSL_STORE_ctrl, OSSL_STORE_do_all_loaders, OSSL_STORE_LOADER_get0_engine,
OSSL_STORE_register_loader, OSSL_STORE_unregister_loader and OSSL_STORE_vctrl
These functions helped applications and engines create loaders for
schemes they supported. These are all deprecated and discouraged in favour of
provider implementations, see L<provider-storemgmt(7)>.
=item PEM_read_DHparams, PEM_read_bio_DHparams,
PEM_read_DSAparams, PEM_read_bio_DSAparams,
PEM_read_DSAPrivateKey, PEM_read_DSA_PUBKEY,
PEM_read_bio_DSAPrivateKey and PEM_read_bio_DSA_PUBKEY,
PEM_read_ECPKParameters, PEM_read_ECPrivateKey, PEM_read_EC_PUBKEY,
PEM_read_bio_ECPKParameters, PEM_read_bio_ECPrivateKey, PEM_read_bio_EC_PUBKEY,
PEM_read_RSAPrivateKey, PEM_read_RSA_PUBKEY, PEM_read_RSAPublicKey,
PEM_read_bio_RSAPrivateKey, PEM_read_bio_RSA_PUBKEY, PEM_read_bio_RSAPublicKey,
PEM_write_bio_DHparams, PEM_write_bio_DHxparams, PEM_write_DHparams, PEM_write_DHxparams,
PEM_write_DSAparams, PEM_write_DSAPrivateKey, PEM_write_DSA_PUBKEY,
PEM_write_bio_DSAparams, PEM_write_bio_DSAPrivateKey, PEM_write_bio_DSA_PUBKEY,
PEM_write_ECPKParameters, PEM_write_ECPrivateKey, PEM_write_EC_PUBKEY,
PEM_write_bio_ECPKParameters, PEM_write_bio_ECPrivateKey, PEM_write_bio_EC_PUBKEY,
PEM_write_RSAPrivateKey, PEM_write_RSA_PUBKEY, PEM_write_RSAPublicKey,
PEM_write_bio_RSAPrivateKey, PEM_write_bio_RSA_PUBKEY and PEM_write_bio_RSAPublicKey.
See L</Deprecated low-level key reading and writing functions>
=item PKCS1_MGF1
See L</Deprecated low-level encryption functions>.
=item RAND_get_rand_method, RAND_set_rand_method, RAND_OpenSSL and RAND_set_rand_engine
Applications should instead use L<RAND_set_DRBG_type(3)>,
L<EVP_RAND(3)> and L<EVP_RAND(7)>.
See L<RAND_set_rand_method(3)> for more details.
=item RC2_encrypt, RC2_decrypt, RC2_set_key, RC2_cbc_encrypt, RC2_cfb64_encrypt,
RC2_ecb_encrypt, RC2_ofb64_encrypt,
RC4, RC4_set_key, RC4_options,
RC5_32_encrypt, RC5_32_set_key, RC5_32_decrypt, RC5_32_cbc_encrypt,
RC5_32_cfb64_encrypt, RC5_32_ecb_encrypt and RC5_32_ofb64_encrypt
See L</Deprecated low-level encryption functions>.
The Algorithms "RC2", "RC4" and "RC5" have been moved to the L<Legacy Provider|/Legacy Algorithms>.
=item RIPEMD160, RIPEMD160_Init, RIPEMD160_Update, RIPEMD160_Final and RIPEMD160_Transform
See L</Deprecated low-level digest functions>.
The RIPE algorithm has been moved to the L<Legacy Provider|/Legacy Algorithms>.
=item RSA_bits, RSA_security_bits and RSA_size
Use L<EVP_PKEY_bits(3)>, L<EVP_PKEY_security_bits(3)> and L<EVP_PKEY_size(3)>.
=item RSA_check_key and RSA_check_key_ex
See L</Deprecated low-level validation functions>
=item RSA_clear_flags, RSA_flags, RSA_set_flags, RSA_test_flags,
RSA_setup_blinding, RSA_blinding_off and RSA_blinding_on
All of these RSA flags have been deprecated without replacement:
=item RSA_generate_key_ex, RSA_generate_multi_prime_key
See L</Deprecated low-level key generation functions>.
=item RSA_get0_engine
See L</Providers are a replacement for engines and low-level method overrides>
=item RSA_get0_crt_params, RSA_get0_d, RSA_get0_dmp1, RSA_get0_dmq1,
RSA_get0_e, RSA_get0_factors, RSA_get0_iqmp, RSA_get0_key,
RSA_get0_multi_prime_crt_params, RSA_get0_multi_prime_factors, RSA_get0_n,
RSA_get0_p, RSA_get0_pss_params, RSA_get0_q and RSA_get_multi_prime_extra_count.
See L</Deprecated low-level key parameter getters>
=item RSA_new, RSA_free and RSA_up_ref
See L</Deprecated low-level object creation>.
=item RSA_get_default_method, RSA_get_ex_data and RSA_get_method
See L</Providers are a replacement for engines and low-level method overrides>.
=item RSA_get_version
There is no replacement.
=item RSA_meth_*, RSA_new_method, RSA_null_method and RSA_PKCS1_OpenSSL
See L</Providers are a replacement for engines and low-level method overrides>.
=item RSA_padding_add_* and RSA_padding_check_*
See L</Deprecated low-level signing functions> and
L</Deprecated low-level encryption functions>.
=item RSA_print and RSA_print_fp
See L</Deprecated low-level key printing functions>
=item RSA_public_encrypt and RSA_private_decrypt
See L</Deprecated low-level encryption functions>
=item RSA_private_encrypt and RSA_public_decrypt
This is equivalent to doing sign and verify operations (with a padding mode
of none). See L</Deprecated low-level signing functions>.
=item RSAPrivateKey_dup, RSAPublicKey_dup
There is no direct replacement. Applications may use L<EVP_PKEY_dup(3)>.
=item RSAPublicKey_it and RSAPrivateKey_it
See L</Deprecated low-level key reading and writing functions>
=item RSA_set0_crt_params, RSA_set0_factors, RSA_set0_key and RSA_set0_multi_prime_params
See L</Deprecated low-level key parameter setters>.
=item RSA_set_default_method, RSA_set_method, RSA_set_ex_data
See L</Providers are a replacement for engines and low-level method overrides>
=item RSA_sign, RSA_sign_ASN1_OCTET_STRING, RSA_verify, RSA_verify_ASN1_OCTET_STRING,
RSA_verify_PKCS1_PSS and RSA_verify_PKCS1_PSS_mgf1
See L</Deprecated low-level signing functions>.
=item RSA_X931_derive_ex, RSA_X931_generate_key_ex and RSA_X931_hash_id.
There are no replacements for these functions.
X931 padding can be set using L<EVP_SIGNATURE-RSA(7)/Signature Parameters>.
=item SEED_encrypt, SEED_decrypt, SEED_set_key, SEED_cbc_encrypt,
SEED_cfb128_encrypt, SEED_ecb_encrypt and SEED_ofb128_encrypt.
See L</Deprecated low-level encryption functions>.
The SEED algorithm has been moved to the L<Legacy Provider|/Legacy Algorithms>.
=item SHA1_Init, SHA1_Update, SHA1_Final, SHA1_Transform,
SHA224_Init, SHA224_Update, SHA224_Final,
SHA256_Init, SHA256_Update, SHA256_Final, SHA256_Transform,
SHA384_Init, SHA384_Update, SHA384_Final,
SHA512_Init, SHA512_Update, SHA512_Final and SHA512_Transform
See L</Deprecated low-level digest functions>.
=item SRP_Calc_A, SRP_Calc_B, SRP_Calc_client_key, SRP_Calc_server_key,
SRP_Calc_u, SRP_Calc_x, SRP_check_known_gN_param, SRP_create_verifier,
SRP_create_verifier_BN, SRP_get_default_gN, SRP_user_pwd_free, SRP_user_pwd_new,
SRP_user_pwd_set0_sv, SRP_user_pwd_set1_ids, SRP_user_pwd_set_gN,
SRP_VBASE_add0_user, SRP_VBASE_free, SRP_VBASE_get1_by_user, SRP_VBASE_init,
SRP_VBASE_new, SRP_Verify_A_mod_N, SRP_Verify_B_mod_N
There are no replacements for the SRP functions.
=item SSL_CTX_set_tmp_dh_callback, SSL_set_tmp_dh_callback,
SSL_CTX_set_tmp_dh and SSL_set_tmp_dh.
These are used to set the Diffie-Hellman (DH) parameters that are to be used by
servers requiring ephemeral DH keys. Instead applications should consider using
the built-in DH parameters that are available by calling L<SSL_CTX_set_dh_auto(3)>
or L<SSL_set_dh_auto(3)>. If custom parameters are necessary then applications can
use the alternative functions L<SSL_CTX_set0_tmp_dh_pkey(3)> and
L<SSL_set0_tmp_dh_pkey(3)>. There is no direct replacement for the "callback"
functions. The callback was originally useful in order to have different
parameters for export and non-export ciphersuites. Export ciphersuites are no
longer supported by OpenSSL. Use of the callback functions should be replaced
by one of the other methods described above.
=item SSL_CTX_set_tlsext_ticket_key_cb.
Use the new L<SSL_CTX_set_tlsext_ticket_key_evp_cb(3)> function instead.
See L</Deprecated low-level digest functions>.
The Whirlpool algorithm has been moved to the L<Legacy Provider|/Legacy Algorithms>.
=item X509_certificate_type
This was an undocumented function. Applications can use L<X509_get0_pubkey(3)>
and L<X509_get0_signature(3)> instead.
=item X509_http_nbio and X509_CRL_http_nbio
Use L<X509_load_http(3)> and L<X509_CRL_load_http(3)> instead.
=head2 Using the FIPS Module in applications
See L<fips_module(7)> and L<OSSL_PROVIDER-FIPS(7)> for details.
=head2 OpenSSL command line application changes
=head3 New applications
L<'kdf'|openssl-kdf(1)> uses the new L<EVP_KDF(3)> API.
L<'mac'|openssl-mac(1)> uses the new L<EVP_MAC(3)> API.
=head3 Added options
'-provider_path' and '-provider' are available to all apps and can be used
multiple times to load any providers, such as the 'legacy' provider or
third party providers. If used then the 'default' provider would also need to be
specified if required. The '-provider_path' must be specified before the
'-provider' option.
The 'list' app has many new options. See L<openssl-list(1)> for more information.
`-crl_lastupdate` and `-crl_nextupdate` used by 'ca' allows explicit setting of
fields in the generated CRL.
=head3 Removed options
Interactive mode is not longer available.
The `-crypt` option used by `passwd`.
The '-c' option used by `x509`, `dhparam`, `dsaparam`, and `ecparam`.
=head3 Other Changes
The output of Command line applications may have minor changes.
These are primarily changes in capitalisation and white space. However, in some
cases, there are additional differences.
For example, the DH parameters output from `dhparam` now lists 'P', 'Q', 'G' and
'pcounter' instead of 'prime', 'generator', 'subgroup order' and 'counter'
The openssl commands that read keys, certificates, and CRLs now
automatically detect the PEM or DER format of the input files so it is not
necessary to explicitly specify the input format anymore. However if the
input format option is used the specified format will be required.
`speed` no longer uses low-level API calls.
This implies some of the performance numbers might not be comparable with the
previous releases due to higher overhead. This applies particularly to
measuring performance on smaller data chunks.
'dhparam', 'dsa', 'gendsa', 'dsaparam', 'genrsa' and 'rsa' have been
modified to use PKEY APIs.
'genrsa' and 'rsa' now write PKCS #8 keys by default.
=head3 Default settings
"SHA256" is now the default digest for TS query used by `ts`.
=head3 Deprecated apps
'rsautl' has been deprecated, use 'pkeyutl' instead.
'dhparam', 'dsa', 'gendsa', 'dsaparam', 'genrsa', 'rsa', 'genrsa' and 'rsa' are
now in maintenance mode and no new features will be added to them.
=head2 TLS Changes
=over 4
=item TLS 1.3 FFDHE key exchange support added
This uses DH safe prime named groups.
=item Support for fully "pluggable" TLSv1.3 groups.
This means that providers may supply their own group implementations (using
either the "key exchange" or the "key encapsulation" methods) which will
automatically be detected and used by libssl.
=item SSL and SSL_CTX options are now 64 bit instead of 32 bit.
The signatures of the functions to get and set options on SSL and
SSL_CTX objects changed from "unsigned long" to "uint64_t" type.
This may require source code changes.
See L<SSL_CTX_get_options(3)>, L<SSL_CTX_set_options(3)>,
L<SSL_get_options(3)> and L<SSL_set_options(3)>.
=item SSL_set1_host() and SSL_add1_host() Changes
These functions now take IP literal addresses as well as actual hostnames.
If the option is set, openssl cleanses (zeroizes) plaintext bytes from
internal buffers after delivering them to the application. Note,
the application is still responsible for cleansing other copies
(e.g.: data received by L<SSL_read(3)>).
=item Client-initiated renegotiation is disabled by default.
To allow it, use the '-client_renegotiation' option,
the B<SSL_OP_ALLOW_CLIENT_RENEGOTIATION> flag, or the "ClientRenegotiation"
config parameter as appropriate.
=item Secure renegotiation is now required by default for TLS connections
Support for RFC 5746 secure renegotiation is now required by default for
SSL or TLS connections to succeed. Applications that require the ability
to connect to legacy peers will need to explicitly set
is no longer set as part of SSL_OP_ALL.
=item Combining the Configure options no-ec and no-dh no longer disables TLSv1.3
Typically if OpenSSL has no EC or DH algorithms then it cannot support
connections with TLSv1.3. However OpenSSL now supports "pluggable" groups
through providers. Therefore third party providers may supply group
implementations even where there are no built-in ones. Attempting to create
TLS connections in such a build without also disabling TLSv1.3 at run time or
using third party provider groups may result in handshake failures. TLSv1.3
can be disabled at compile time using the "no-tls1_3" Configure option.
=item SSL_CTX_set_ciphersuites() and SSL_set_ciphersuites() changes.
The methods now ignore unknown ciphers.
=item Security callback change.
The security callback, which can be customised by application code, supports
the security operation SSL_SECOP_TMP_DH. This is defined to take an EVP_PKEY
in the "other" parameter. In most places this is what is passed. All these
places occur server side. However there was one client side call of this
security operation and it passed a DH object instead. This is incorrect
according to the definition of SSL_SECOP_TMP_DH, and is inconsistent with all
of the other locations. Therefore this client side call has been changed to
pass an EVP_PKEY instead.
The SSL option SSL_OP_IGNORE_UNEXPECTED_EOF is introduced. If that option
is set, an unexpected EOF is ignored, it pretends a close notify was received
instead and so the returned error becomes SSL_ERROR_ZERO_RETURN.
=item The security strength of SHA1 and MD5 based signatures in TLS has been reduced.
This results in SSL 3, TLS 1.0, TLS 1.1 and DTLS 1.0 no longer
working at the default security level of 1 and instead requires security
level 0. The security level can be changed either using the cipher string
with `@SECLEVEL`, or calling L<SSL_CTX_set_security_level(3)>. This also means
that where the signature algorithms extension is missing from a ClientHello
then the handshake will fail in TLS 1.2 at security level 1. This is because,
although this extension is optional, failing to provide one means that
OpenSSL will fallback to a default set of signature algorithms. This default
set requires the availability of SHA1.
=item X509 certificates signed using SHA1 are no longer allowed at security level 1 and above.
In TLS/SSL the default security level is 1. It can be set either using the cipher
string with `@SECLEVEL`, or calling L<SSL_CTX_set_security_level(3)>. If the
leaf certificate is signed with SHA-1, a call to L<SSL_CTX_use_certificate(3)>
will fail if the security level is not lowered first.
Outside TLS/SSL, the default security level is -1 (effectively 0). It can
be set using L<X509_VERIFY_PARAM_set_auth_level(3)> or using the `-auth_level`
options of the commands.
=head1 SEE ALSO
Copyright 2021 The OpenSSL Project Authors. All Rights Reserved.
Licensed under the Apache License 2.0 (the "License"). You may not use
this file except in compliance with the License. You can obtain a copy
in the file LICENSE in the source distribution or at