You can not select more than 25 topics Topics must start with a letter or number, can include dashes ('-') and can be up to 35 characters long.

12213 lines
518 KiB

Changes between 1.0.2h and 1.1.0 [xx XXX 2016]
*) Unify TYPE_up_ref(obj) methods signature.
SSL_CTX_up_ref(), SSL_up_ref(), X509_up_ref(), EVP_PKEY_up_ref(),
X509_CRL_up_ref(), X509_OBJECT_up_ref_count() methods are now returning an
int (instead of void) like all others TYPE_up_ref() methods.
So now these methods also check the return value of CRYPTO_atomic_add(),
and the validity of object reference counter.
*) With Windows Visual Studio builds, the .pdb files are installed
alongside the installed libraries and executables. For a static
library installation, ossl_static.pdb is the associate compiler
generated .pdb file to be used when linking programs.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Remove openssl.spec. Packaging files belong with the packagers.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Automatic Darwin/OSX configuration has had a refresh, it will now
recognise x86_64 architectures automatically. You can still decide
to build for a different bitness with the environment variable
KERNEL_BITS (can be 32 or 64), for example:
KERNEL_BITS=32 ./config
[Richard Levitte]
*) Change default algorithms in pkcs8 utility to use PKCS#5 v2.0,
256 bit AES and HMAC with SHA256.
[Steve Henson]
*) Remove support for MIPS o32 ABI on IRIX (and IRIX only).
[Andy Polyakov]
*) Triple-DES ciphers have been moved from HIGH to MEDIUM.
[Rich Salz]
*) To enable users to have their own config files and build file templates,
Configure looks in the directory indicated by the environment variable
OPENSSL_LOCAL_CONFIG_DIR as well as the in-source Configurations/
directory. On VMS, OPENSSL_LOCAL_CONFIG_DIR is expected to be a logical
name and is used as is.
[Richard Levitte]
*) The following datatypes were made opaque: X509_OBJECT, X509_STORE_CTX,
X509_STORE, X509_LOOKUP, and X509_LOOKUP_METHOD. The unused type
X509_CERT_FILE_CTX was removed.
[Rich Salz]
*) "shared" builds are now the default. To create only static libraries use
the "no-shared" Configure option.
[Matt Caswell]
*) Remove the no-aes, no-hmac, no-rsa, no-sha and no-md5 Configure options.
All of these option have not worked for some while and are fundamental
[Matt Caswell]
*) Make various cleanup routines no-ops and mark them as deprecated. Most
global cleanup functions are no longer required because they are handled
via auto-deinit (see OPENSSL_init_crypto and OPENSSL_init_ssl man pages).
Explicitly de-initing can cause problems (e.g. where a library that uses
OpenSSL de-inits, but an application is still using it). The affected
functions are CONF_modules_free(), ENGINE_cleanup(), OBJ_cleanup(),
EVP_cleanup(), BIO_sock_cleanup(), CRYPTO_cleanup_all_ex_data(),
RAND_cleanup(), SSL_COMP_free_compression_methods(), ERR_free_strings() and
[Matt Caswell]
*) --strict-warnings no longer enables runtime debugging options
such as REF_DEBUG. Instead, debug options are automatically
enabled with '--debug' builds.
[Andy Polyakov, Emilia Käsper]
*) Made DH and DH_METHOD opaque. The structures for managing DH objects
have been moved out of the public header files. New functions for managing
these have been added.
[Matt Caswell]
*) Made RSA and RSA_METHOD opaque. The structures for managing RSA
objects have been moved out of the public header files. New
functions for managing these have been added.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Made DSA and DSA_METHOD opaque. The structures for managing DSA objects
have been moved out of the public header files. New functions for managing
these have been added.
[Matt Caswell]
*) Made BIO and BIO_METHOD opaque. The structures for managing BIOs have been
moved out of the public header files. New functions for managing these
have been added.
[Matt Caswell]
*) Removed no-rijndael as a config option. Rijndael is an old name for AES.
[Matt Caswell]
*) Removed the mk1mf build scripts.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Headers are now wrapped, if necessary, with OPENSSL_NO_xxx, so
it is always safe to #include a header now.
[Rich Salz]
*) Removed the aged BC-32 config and all its supporting scripts
[Richard Levitte]
*) Removed support for Ultrix, Netware, and OS/2.
[Rich Salz]
*) Add support for HKDF.
[Alessandro Ghedini]
*) Add support for blake2b and blake2s
[Bill Cox]
*) Added support for "pipelining". Ciphers that have the
EVP_CIPH_FLAG_PIPELINE flag set have a capability to process multiple
encryptions/decryptions simultaneously. There are currently no built-in
ciphers with this property but the expectation is that engines will be able
to offer it to significantly improve throughput. Support has been extended
into libssl so that multiple records for a single connection can be
processed in one go (for >=TLS 1.1).
[Matt Caswell]
*) Added the AFALG engine. This is an async capable engine which is able to
offload work to the Linux kernel. In this initial version it only supports
AES128-CBC. The kernel must be version 4.1.0 or greater.
[Catriona Lucey]
*) OpenSSL now uses a new threading API. It is no longer necessary to
set locking callbacks to use OpenSSL in a multi-threaded environment. There
are two supported threading models: pthreads and windows threads. It is
also possible to configure OpenSSL at compile time for "no-threads". The
old threading API should no longer be used. The functions have been
replaced with "no-op" compatibility macros.
[Alessandro Ghedini, Matt Caswell]
*) Modify behavior of ALPN to invoke callback after SNI/servername
callback, such that updates to the SSL_CTX affect ALPN.
[Todd Short]
*) Add SSL_CIPHER queries for authentication and key-exchange.
[Todd Short]
*) Changes to the DEFAULT cipherlist:
- Prefer (EC)DHE handshakes over plain RSA.
- Prefer AEAD ciphers over legacy ciphers.
- Prefer ECDSA over RSA when both certificates are available.
- Prefer TLSv1.2 ciphers/PRF.
- Remove DSS, SEED, IDEA, CAMELLIA, and AES-CCM from the
default cipherlist.
[Emilia Käsper]
*) Change the ECC default curve list to be this, in order: x25519,
secp256r1, secp521r1, secp384r1.
[Rich Salz]
*) RC4 based libssl ciphersuites are now classed as "weak" ciphers and are
disabled by default. They can be re-enabled using the
enable-weak-ssl-ciphers option to Configure.
[Matt Caswell]
*) If the server has ALPN configured, but supports no protocols that the
client advertises, send a fatal "no_application_protocol" alert.
This behaviour is SHALL in RFC 7301, though it isn't universally
implemented by other servers.
[Emilia Käsper]
*) Add X25519 support.
Integrate support for X25519 into EC library. This includes support
for public and private key encoding using the format documented in
draft-josefsson-pkix-newcurves-01: specifically X25519 uses the
OID from that draft, encodes public keys using little endian
format in the ECPoint structure and private keys using
little endian form in the privateKey field of the ECPrivateKey
structure. TLS support complies with draft-ietf-tls-rfc4492bis-06
and uses X25519(29).
Note: the current version supports key generation, public and
private key encoding and ECDH key agreement using the EC API.
Low level point operations such as EC_POINT_add(), EC_POINT_mul()
are NOT supported.
[Steve Henson]
*) Deprecate SRP_VBASE_get_by_user.
SRP_VBASE_get_by_user had inconsistent memory management behaviour.
In order to fix an unavoidable memory leak (CVE-2016-0798),
SRP_VBASE_get_by_user was changed to ignore the "fake user" SRP
seed, even if the seed is configured.
Users should use SRP_VBASE_get1_by_user instead. Note that in
SRP_VBASE_get1_by_user, caller must free the returned value. Note
also that even though configuring the SRP seed attempts to hide
invalid usernames by continuing the handshake with fake
credentials, this behaviour is not constant time and no strong
guarantees are made that the handshake is indistinguishable from
that of a valid user.
[Emilia Käsper]
*) Configuration change; it's now possible to build dynamic engines
without having to build shared libraries and vice versa. This
only applies to the engines in engines/, those in crypto/engine/
will always be built into libcrypto (i.e. "static").
Building dynamic engines is enabled by default; to disable, use
the configuration option "disable-dynamic-engine".
The only requirements for building dynamic engines are the
presence of the DSO module and building with position independent
code, so they will also automatically be disabled if configuring
with "disable-dso" or "disable-pic".
are also taken away from openssl/opensslconf.h, as they are
[Richard Levitte]
*) Configuration change; if there is a known flag to compile
position independent code, it will always be applied on the
libcrypto and libssl object files, and never on the application
object files. This means other libraries that use routines from
libcrypto / libssl can be made into shared libraries regardless
of how OpenSSL was configured.
If this isn't desirable, the configuration options "disable-pic"
or "no-pic" can be used to disable the use of PIC. This will
also disable building shared libraries and dynamic engines.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Removed JPAKE code. It was experimental and has no wide use.
[Rich Salz]
*) The INSTALL_PREFIX Makefile variable has been renamed to
DESTDIR. That makes for less confusion on what this variable
is for. Also, the configuration option --install_prefix is
[Richard Levitte]
*) Heartbeat for TLS has been removed and is disabled by default
for DTLS; configure with enable-heartbeats. Code that uses the
old #define's might need to be updated.
[Emilia Käsper, Rich Salz]
[Rich Salz]
*) New "unified" build system
The "unified" build system is aimed to be a common system for all
platforms we support. With it comes new support for VMS.
This system builds supports building in a different directory tree
than the source tree. It produces one Makefile (for unix family
or lookalikes), or one descrip.mms (for VMS).
The source of information to make the Makefile / descrip.mms is
small files called '', holding the necessary
information for each directory with source to compile, and a
template in Configurations, like unix-Makefile.tmpl or
We rely heavily on the perl module Text::Template.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Added support for auto-initialisation and de-initialisation of the library.
OpenSSL no longer requires explicit init or deinit routines to be called,
except in certain circumstances. See the OPENSSL_init_crypto() and
OPENSSL_init_ssl() man pages for further information.
[Matt Caswell]
*) The arguments to the DTLSv1_listen function have changed. Specifically the
"peer" argument is now expected to be a BIO_ADDR object.
*) Rewrite of BIO networking library. The BIO library lacked consistent
support of IPv6, and adding it required some more extensive
modifications. This introduces the BIO_ADDR and BIO_ADDRINFO types,
which hold all types of addresses and chains of address information.
It also introduces a new API, with functions like BIO_socket,
BIO_connect, BIO_listen, BIO_lookup and a rewrite of BIO_accept.
The source/sink BIOs BIO_s_connect, BIO_s_accept and BIO_s_datagram
have been adapted accordingly.
[Richard Levitte]
*) RSA_padding_check_PKCS1_type_1 now accepts inputs with and without
the leading 0-byte.
[Emilia Käsper]
*) CRIME protection: disable compression by default, even if OpenSSL is
compiled with zlib enabled. Applications can still enable compression
by calling SSL_CTX_clear_options(ctx, SSL_OP_NO_COMPRESSION), or by
using the SSL_CONF library to configure compression.
[Emilia Käsper]
*) The signature of the session callback configured with
SSL_CTX_sess_set_get_cb was changed. The read-only input buffer
was explicitly marked as 'const unsigned char*' instead of
'unsigned char*'.
[Emilia Käsper]
*) Always DPURIFY. Remove the use of uninitialized memory in the
RNG, and other conditional uses of DPURIFY. This makes -DPURIFY a no-op.
[Emilia Käsper]
*) Removed many obsolete configuration items, including
[Rich Salz, with advice from Andy Polyakov]
*) Many BN internals have been moved to an internal header file.
[Rich Salz with help from Andy Polyakov]
*) Configuration and writing out the results from it has changed.
Files such as Makefile include/openssl/opensslconf.h and are now
produced through general templates, such as and
crypto/ and some help from the perl module
Also, the center of configuration information is no longer
Makefile. Instead, Configure produces a perl module in which holds most of the config data (in the hash
table %config), the target data that comes from the target
configuration in one of the Configurations/*.conf files (in
[Richard Levitte]
*) To clarify their intended purposes, the Configure options
--prefix and --openssldir change their semantics, and become more
straightforward and less interdependent.
--prefix shall be used exclusively to give the location INSTALLTOP
where programs, scripts, libraries, include files and manuals are
going to be installed. The default is now /usr/local.
--openssldir shall be used exclusively to give the default
location OPENSSLDIR where certificates, private keys, CRLs are
managed. This is also where the default openssl.cnf gets
If the directory given with this option is a relative path, the
values of both the --prefix value and the --openssldir value will
be combined to become OPENSSLDIR.
The default for --openssldir is INSTALLTOP/ssl.
Anyone who uses --openssldir to specify where OpenSSL is to be
installed MUST change to use --prefix instead.
[Richard Levitte]
*) The GOST engine was out of date and therefore it has been removed. An up
to date GOST engine is now being maintained in an external repository.
See: Libssl still retains
support for GOST ciphersuites (these are only activated if a GOST engine
is present).
[Matt Caswell]
*) EGD is no longer supported by default; use enable-egd when
[Ben Kaduk and Rich Salz]
*) The distribution now has files, which are used to
create Makefile's when Configure is run. *Configure must be run
before trying to build now.*
[Rich Salz]
*) The return value for SSL_CIPHER_description() for error conditions
has changed.
[Rich Salz]
*) Support for RFC6698/RFC7671 DANE TLSA peer authentication.
Obtaining and performing DNSSEC validation of TLSA records is
the application's responsibility. The application provides
the TLSA records of its choice to OpenSSL, and these are then
used to authenticate the peer.
The TLSA records need not even come from DNS. They can, for
example, be used to implement local end-entity certificate or
trust-anchor "pinning", where the "pin" data takes the form
of TLSA records, which can augment or replace verification
based on the usual WebPKI public certification authorities.
[Viktor Dukhovni]
*) Revert default OPENSSL_NO_DEPRECATED setting. Instead OpenSSL
continues to support deprecated interfaces in default builds.
However, applications are strongly advised to compile their
source files with -DOPENSSL_API_COMPAT=0x10100000L, which hides
the declarations of all interfaces deprecated in 0.9.8, 1.0.0
or the 1.1.0 releases.
In environments in which all applications have been ported to
not use any deprecated interfaces OpenSSL's Configure script
should be used with the --api=1.1.0 option to entirely remove
support for the deprecated features from the library and
unconditionally disable them in the installed headers.
Essentially the same effect can be achieved with the "no-deprecated"
argument to Configure, except that this will always restrict
the build to just the latest API, rather than a fixed API
As applications are ported to future revisions of the API,
they should update their compile-time OPENSSL_API_COMPAT define
accordingly, but in most cases should be able to continue to
compile with later releases.
The OPENSSL_API_COMPAT versions for 1.0.0, and 0.9.8 are
0x10000000L and 0x00908000L, respectively. However those
versions did not support the OPENSSL_API_COMPAT feature, and
so applications are not typically tested for explicit support
of just the undeprecated features of either release.
[Viktor Dukhovni]
*) Add support for setting the minimum and maximum supported protocol.
It can bet set via the SSL_set_min_proto_version() and
SSL_set_max_proto_version(), or via the SSL_CONF's MinProtocol and
MaxProtcol. It's recommended to use the new APIs to disable
protocols instead of disabling individual protocols using
SSL_set_options() or SSL_CONF's Protocol. This change also
removes support for disabling TLS 1.2 in the OpenSSL TLS
client at compile time by defining OPENSSL_NO_TLS1_2_CLIENT.
[Kurt Roeckx]
*) Support for ChaCha20 and Poly1305 added to libcrypto and libssl.
[Andy Polyakov]
*) New EC_KEY_METHOD, this replaces the older ECDSA_METHOD and ECDH_METHOD
and integrates ECDSA and ECDH functionality into EC. Implementations can
now redirect key generation and no longer need to convert to or from
ECDSA_SIG format.
Note: the ecdsa.h and ecdh.h headers are now no longer needed and just
include the ec.h header file instead.
[Steve Henson]
*) Remove support for all 40 and 56 bit ciphers. This includes all the export
ciphers who are no longer supported and drops support the ephemeral RSA key
exchange. The LOW ciphers currently doesn't have any ciphers in it.
[Kurt Roeckx]
opaque. For HMAC_CTX, the following constructors and destructors
were added:
HMAC_CTX *HMAC_CTX_new(void);
void HMAC_CTX_free(HMAC_CTX *ctx);
For EVP_MD and EVP_CIPHER, complete APIs to create, fill and
destroy such methods has been added. See EVP_MD_meth_new(3) and
EVP_CIPHER_meth_new(3) for documentation.
Additional changes:
1) EVP_MD_CTX_cleanup(), EVP_CIPHER_CTX_cleanup() and
HMAC_CTX_cleanup() were removed. HMAC_CTX_reset() and
EVP_MD_CTX_reset() should be called instead to reinitialise
an already created structure.
2) For consistency with the majority of our object creators and
destructors, EVP_MD_CTX_(create|destroy) were renamed to
EVP_MD_CTX_(new|free). The old names are retained as macros
for deprecated builds.
[Richard Levitte]
*) Added ASYNC support. Libcrypto now includes the async sub-library to enable
cryptographic operations to be performed asynchronously as long as an
asynchronous capable engine is used. See the ASYNC_start_job() man page for
further details. Libssl has also had this capability integrated with the
introduction of the new mode SSL_MODE_ASYNC and associated error
SSL_ERROR_WANT_ASYNC. See the SSL_CTX_set_mode() and SSL_get_error() man
pages. This work was developed in partnership with Intel Corp.
[Matt Caswell]
*) SSL_{CTX_}set_ecdh_auto() has been removed and ECDH is support is
always enabled now. If you want to disable the support you should
exclude it using the list of supported ciphers. This also means that the
"-no_ecdhe" option has been removed from s_server.
[Kurt Roeckx]
*) SSL_{CTX}_set_tmp_ecdh() which can set 1 EC curve now internally calls
SSL_{CTX_}set1_curves() which can set a list.
[Kurt Roeckx]
*) Remove support for SSL_{CTX_}set_tmp_ecdh_callback(). You should set the
curve you want to support using SSL_{CTX_}set1_curves().
[Kurt Roeckx]
*) State machine rewrite. The state machine code has been significantly
refactored in order to remove much duplication of code and solve issues
with the old code (see ssl/statem/README for further details). This change
does have some associated API changes. Notably the SSL_state() function
has been removed and replaced by SSL_get_state which now returns an
"OSSL_HANDSHAKE_STATE" instead of an int. SSL_set_state() has been removed
altogether. The previous handshake states defined in ssl.h and ssl3.h have
also been removed.
[Matt Caswell]
*) All instances of the string "ssleay" in the public API were replaced
with OpenSSL (case-matching; e.g., OPENSSL_VERSION for #define's)
Some error codes related to internal RSA_eay API's were renamed.
[Rich Salz]
*) The demo files in crypto/threads were moved to demo/threads.
[Rich Salz]
*) Removed obsolete engines: 4758cca, aep, atalla, cswift, nuron, gmp,
sureware and ubsec.
[Matt Caswell, Rich Salz]
*) New ASN.1 embed macro.
New ASN.1 macro ASN1_EMBED. This is the same as ASN1_SIMPLE except the
structure is not allocated: it is part of the parent. That is instead of
FOO *x;
it must be:
FOO x;
This reduces memory fragmentation and make it impossible to accidentally
set a mandatory field to NULL.
This currently only works for some fields specifically a SEQUENCE, CHOICE,
or ASN1_STRING type which is part of a parent SEQUENCE. Since it is
equivalent to ASN1_SIMPLE it cannot be tagged, OPTIONAL, SET OF or
[Steve Henson]
*) Remove EVP_CHECK_DES_KEY, a compile-time option that never compiled.
[Emilia Käsper]
*) Removed DES and RC4 ciphersuites from DEFAULT. Also removed RC2 although
in 1.0.2 EXPORT was already removed and the only RC2 ciphersuite is also
an EXPORT one. COMPLEMENTOFDEFAULT has been updated accordingly to add
DES and RC4 ciphersuites.
[Matt Caswell]
*) Rewrite EVP_DecodeUpdate (base64 decoding) to fix several bugs.
This changes the decoding behaviour for some invalid messages,
though the change is mostly in the more lenient direction, and
legacy behaviour is preserved as much as possible.
[Emilia Käsper]
*) Fix no-stdio build.
[ David Woodhouse <> and also
Ivan Nestlerode <> ]
*) New testing framework
The testing framework has been largely rewritten and is now using
perl and the perl modules Test::Harness and an extended variant of
Test::More called OpenSSL::Test to do its work. All test scripts in
test/ have been rewritten into test recipes, and all direct calls to
executables in test/Makefile have become individual recipes using the
simplified testing OpenSSL::Test::Simple.
For documentation on our testing modules, do:
perldoc test/testlib/OpenSSL/Test/
perldoc test/testlib/OpenSSL/
[Richard Levitte]
*) Revamped memory debug; only -DCRYPTO_MDEBUG and -DCRYPTO_MDEBUG_ABORT
are used; the latter aborts on memory leaks (usually checked on exit).
Some undocumented "set malloc, etc., hooks" functions were removed
and others were changed. All are now documented.
[Rich Salz]
*) In DSA_generate_parameters_ex, if the provided seed is too short,
return an error
[Rich Salz and Ismo Puustinen <>]
*) Rewrite PSK to support ECDHE_PSK, DHE_PSK and RSA_PSK. Add ciphersuites
from RFC4279, RFC4785, RFC5487, RFC5489.
Thanks to Christian J. Dietrich and Giuseppe D'Angelo for the
original RSA_PSK patch.
[Steve Henson]
*) Dropped support for the SSL3_FLAGS_DELAY_CLIENT_FINISHED flag. This SSLeay
era flag was never set throughout the codebase (only read). Also removed
SSL3_FLAGS_POP_BUFFER which was only used if
[Matt Caswell]
*) Changed the default name options in the "ca", "crl", "req" and "x509"
to be "oneline" instead of "compat".
[Richard Levitte]
*) Remove SSL_OP_TLS_BLOCK_PADDING_BUG. This is SSLeay legacy, we're
not aware of clients that still exhibit this bug, and the workaround
hasn't been working properly for a while.
[Emilia Käsper]
*) The return type of BIO_number_read() and BIO_number_written() as well as
the corresponding num_read and num_write members in the BIO structure has
changed from unsigned long to uint64_t. On platforms where an unsigned
long is 32 bits (e.g. Windows) these counters could overflow if >4Gb is
[Matt Caswell]
*) Given the pervasive nature of TLS extensions it is inadvisable to run
OpenSSL without support for them. It also means that maintaining
the OPENSSL_NO_TLSEXT option within the code is very invasive (and probably
not well tested). Therefore the OPENSSL_NO_TLSEXT option has been removed.
[Matt Caswell]
*) Removed support for the two export grade static DH ciphersuites
EXP-DH-RSA-DES-CBC-SHA and EXP-DH-DSS-DES-CBC-SHA. These two ciphersuites
were newly added (along with a number of other static DH ciphersuites) to
1.0.2. However the two export ones have *never* worked since they were
introduced. It seems strange in any case to be adding new export
ciphersuites, and given "logjam" it also does not seem correct to fix them.
[Matt Caswell]
*) Version negotiation has been rewritten. In particular SSLv23_method(),
SSLv23_client_method() and SSLv23_server_method() have been deprecated,
and turned into macros which simply call the new preferred function names
TLS_method(), TLS_client_method() and TLS_server_method(). All new code
should use the new names instead. Also as part of this change the ssl23.h
header file has been removed.
[Matt Caswell]
*) Support for Kerberos ciphersuites in TLS (RFC2712) has been removed. This
code and the associated standard is no longer considered fit-for-purpose.
[Matt Caswell]
*) RT2547 was closed. When generating a private key, try to make the
output file readable only by the owner. This behavior change might
be noticeable when interacting with other software.
*) Documented all exdata functions. Added CRYPTO_free_ex_index.
Added a test.
[Rich Salz]
*) Added HTTP GET support to the ocsp command.
[Rich Salz]
*) Changed default digest for the dgst and enc commands from MD5 to
[Rich Salz]
*) RAND_pseudo_bytes has been deprecated. Users should use RAND_bytes instead.
[Matt Caswell]
*) Added support for TLS extended master secret from
draft-ietf-tls-session-hash-03.txt. Thanks for Alfredo Pironti for an
initial patch which was a great help during development.
[Steve Henson]
*) All libssl internal structures have been removed from the public header
files, and the OPENSSL_NO_SSL_INTERN option has been removed (since it is
now redundant). Users should not attempt to access internal structures
directly. Instead they should use the provided API functions.
[Matt Caswell]
*) config has been changed so that by default OPENSSL_NO_DEPRECATED is used.
Access to deprecated functions can be re-enabled by running config with
"enable-deprecated". In addition applications wishing to use deprecated
functions must define OPENSSL_USE_DEPRECATED. Note that this new behaviour
will, by default, disable some transitive includes that previously existed
in the header files (e.g. ec.h will no longer, by default, include bn.h)
[Matt Caswell]
*) Added support for OCB mode. OpenSSL has been granted a patent license
compatible with the OpenSSL license for use of OCB. Details are available
at Support
for OCB can be removed by calling config with no-ocb.
[Matt Caswell]
*) SSLv2 support has been removed. It still supports receiving a SSLv2
compatible client hello.
[Kurt Roeckx]
*) Increased the minimal RSA keysize from 256 to 512 bits [Rich Salz],
done while fixing the error code for the key-too-small case.
[Annie Yousar <>]
*) has been removmed; use instead.
[Rich Salz]
*) Removed old DES API.
[Rich Salz]
*) Remove various unsupported platforms:
Sony NEWS4
Sinix/ReliantUNIX RM400
16-bit platforms such as WIN16
[Rich Salz]
*) Clean up OPENSSL_NO_xxx #define's
Use setbuf() and remove OPENSSL_NO_SETVBUF_IONBF
Remove MS_STATIC; it's a relic from platforms <32 bits.
[Rich Salz]
*) Cleaned up dead code
Remove all but one '#ifdef undef' which is to be looked at.
[Rich Salz]
*) Clean up calling of xxx_free routines.
Just like free(), fix most of the xxx_free routines to accept
NULL. Remove the non-null checks from callers. Save much code.
[Rich Salz]
*) Add secure heap for storage of private keys (when possible).
Add BIO_s_secmem(), CBIGNUM, etc.
Contributed by Akamai Technologies under our Corporate CLA.
[Rich Salz]
*) Experimental support for a new, fast, unbiased prime candidate generator,
bn_probable_prime_dh_coprime(). Not currently used by any prime generator.
[Felix Laurie von Massenbach <>]
*) New output format NSS in the sess_id command line tool. This allows
exporting the session id and the master key in NSS keylog format.
[Martin Kaiser <>]
*) Harmonize version and its documentation. -f flag is used to display
compilation flags.
[mancha <>]
*) Fix eckey_priv_encode so it immediately returns an error upon a failure
in i2d_ECPrivateKey. Thanks to Ted Unangst for feedback on this issue.
[mancha <>]
*) Fix some double frees. These are not thought to be exploitable.
[mancha <>]
*) A missing bounds check in the handling of the TLS heartbeat extension
can be used to reveal up to 64k of memory to a connected client or
Thanks for Neel Mehta of Google Security for discovering this bug and to
Adam Langley <> and Bodo Moeller <> for
preparing the fix (CVE-2014-0160)
[Adam Langley, Bodo Moeller]
*) Fix for the attack described in the paper "Recovering OpenSSL
ECDSA Nonces Using the FLUSH+RELOAD Cache Side-channel Attack"
by Yuval Yarom and Naomi Benger. Details can be obtained from:
Thanks to Yuval Yarom and Naomi Benger for discovering this
flaw and to Yuval Yarom for supplying a fix (CVE-2014-0076)
[Yuval Yarom and Naomi Benger]
*) Use algorithm specific chains in SSL_CTX_use_certificate_chain_file():
this fixes a limitation in previous versions of OpenSSL.
[Steve Henson]
*) Experimental encrypt-then-mac support.
Experimental support for encrypt then mac from
To enable it set the appropriate extension number (0x42 for the test
server) using e.g. -DTLSEXT_TYPE_encrypt_then_mac=0x42
For non-compliant peers (i.e. just about everything) this should have no
[Steve Henson]
*) Add EVP support for key wrapping algorithms, to avoid problems with
existing code the flag EVP_CIPHER_CTX_WRAP_ALLOW has to be set in
the EVP_CIPHER_CTX or an error is returned. Add AES and DES3 wrap
algorithms and include tests cases.
[Steve Henson]
*) Extend CMS code to support RSA-PSS signatures and RSA-OAEP for
enveloped data.
[Steve Henson]
*) Extended RSA OAEP support via EVP_PKEY API. Options to specify digest,
MGF1 digest and OAEP label.
[Steve Henson]
*) Make openssl verify return errors.
[Chris Palmer <> and Ben Laurie]
*) New function ASN1_TIME_diff to calculate the difference between two
ASN1_TIME structures or one structure and the current time.
[Steve Henson]
*) Update fips_test_suite to support multiple command line options. New
test to induce all self test errors in sequence and check expected
[Steve Henson]
*) Add FIPS_{rsa,dsa,ecdsa}_{sign,verify} functions which digest and
sign or verify all in one operation.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add fips_algvs: a multicall fips utility incorporating all the algorithm
test programs and fips_test_suite. Includes functionality to parse
the minimal script output of directly.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add authorisation parameter to FIPS_module_mode_set().
[Steve Henson]
*) Add FIPS selftest for ECDH algorithm using P-224 and B-233 curves.
[Steve Henson]
*) Use separate DRBG fields for internal and external flags. New function
FIPS_drbg_health_check() to perform on demand health checking. Add
generation tests to fips_test_suite with reduced health check interval to
demonstrate periodic health checking. Add "nodh" option to
fips_test_suite to skip very slow DH test.
[Steve Henson]
*) New function FIPS_get_cipherbynid() to lookup FIPS supported ciphers
based on NID.
[Steve Henson]
*) More extensive health check for DRBG checking many more failure modes.
New function FIPS_selftest_drbg_all() to handle every possible DRBG
combination: call this in fips_test_suite.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add support for Dual EC DRBG from SP800-90. Update DRBG algorithm test
and POST to handle Dual EC cases.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add support for canonical generation of DSA parameter 'g'. See
FIPS 186-3 A.2.3.
*) Add support for HMAC DRBG from SP800-90. Update DRBG algorithm test and
POST to handle HMAC cases.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add functions FIPS_module_version() and FIPS_module_version_text()
to return numerical and string versions of the FIPS module number.
[Steve Henson]
*) Rename FIPS_mode_set and FIPS_mode to FIPS_module_mode_set and
FIPS_module_mode. FIPS_mode and FIPS_mode_set will be implemented
outside the validated module in the FIPS capable OpenSSL.
[Steve Henson]
*) Minor change to DRBG entropy callback semantics. In some cases
there is no multiple of the block length between min_len and
max_len. Allow the callback to return more than max_len bytes
of entropy but discard any extra: it is the callback's responsibility
to ensure that the extra data discarded does not impact the
requested amount of entropy.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add PRNG security strength checks to RSA, DSA and ECDSA using
information in FIPS186-3, SP800-57 and SP800-131A.
[Steve Henson]
*) CCM support via EVP. Interface is very similar to GCM case except we
must supply all data in one chunk (i.e. no update, final) and the
message length must be supplied if AAD is used. Add algorithm test
[Steve Henson]
*) Initial version of POST overhaul. Add POST callback to allow the status
of POST to be monitored and/or failures induced. Modify fips_test_suite
to use callback. Always run all selftests even if one fails.
[Steve Henson]
*) XTS support including algorithm test driver in the fips_gcmtest program.
Note: this does increase the maximum key length from 32 to 64 bytes but
there should be no binary compatibility issues as existing applications
will never use XTS mode.
[Steve Henson]
*) Extensive reorganisation of FIPS PRNG behaviour. Remove all dependencies
to OpenSSL RAND code and replace with a tiny FIPS RAND API which also
performs algorithm blocking for unapproved PRNG types. Also do not
set PRNG type in FIPS_mode_set(): leave this to the application.
Add default OpenSSL DRBG handling: sets up FIPS PRNG and seeds with
the standard OpenSSL PRNG: set additional data to a date time vector.
[Steve Henson]
*) Rename old X9.31 PRNG functions of the form FIPS_rand* to FIPS_x931*.
This shouldn't present any incompatibility problems because applications
shouldn't be using these directly and any that are will need to rethink
anyway as the X9.31 PRNG is now deprecated by FIPS 140-2
[Steve Henson]
*) Extensive self tests and health checking required by SP800-90 DRBG.
Remove strength parameter from FIPS_drbg_instantiate and always
instantiate at maximum supported strength.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add ECDH code to fips module and fips_ecdhvs for primitives only testing.
[Steve Henson]
*) New algorithm test program fips_dhvs to handle DH primitives only testing.
[Steve Henson]
*) New function DH_compute_key_padded() to compute a DH key and pad with
leading zeroes if needed: this complies with SP800-56A et al.
[Steve Henson]
*) Initial implementation of SP800-90 DRBGs for Hash and CTR. Not used by
anything, incomplete, subject to change and largely untested at present.
[Steve Henson]
*) Modify fipscanisteronly build option to only build the necessary object
files by filtering FIPS_EX_OBJ through a perl script in crypto/Makefile.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add experimental option FIPSSYMS to give all symbols in
fipscanister.o and FIPS or fips prefix. This will avoid
conflicts with future versions of OpenSSL. Add perl script
util/ to preprocess assembly language source files
and rename any affected symbols.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add selftest checks and algorithm block of non-fips algorithms in
FIPS mode. Remove DES2 from selftests.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add ECDSA code to fips module. Add tiny fips_ecdsa_check to just
return internal method without any ENGINE dependencies. Add new
tiny fips sign and verify functions.
[Steve Henson]
*) New build option no-ec2m to disable characteristic 2 code.
[Steve Henson]
*) New build option "fipscanisteronly". This only builds fipscanister.o
and (currently) associated fips utilities. Uses the file Makefile.fips
instead of as the prototype.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add some FIPS mode restrictions to GCM. Add internal IV generator.
Update fips_gcmtest to use IV generator.
[Steve Henson]
*) Initial, experimental EVP support for AES-GCM. AAD can be input by
setting output buffer to NULL. The *Final function must be
called although it will not retrieve any additional data. The tag
can be set or retrieved with a ctrl. The IV length is by default 12
bytes (96 bits) but can be set to an alternative value. If the IV
length exceeds the maximum IV length (currently 16 bytes) it cannot be
set before the key.
[Steve Henson]
*) New flag in ciphers: EVP_CIPH_FLAG_CUSTOM_CIPHER. This means the
underlying do_cipher function handles all cipher semantics itself
including padding and finalisation. This is useful if (for example)
an ENGINE cipher handles block padding itself. The behaviour of
do_cipher is subtly changed if this flag is set: the return value
is the number of characters written to the output buffer (zero is
no longer an error code) or a negative error code. Also if the
input buffer is NULL and length 0 finalisation should be performed.
[Steve Henson]
*) If a candidate issuer certificate is already part of the constructed
path ignore it: new debug notification X509_V_ERR_PATH_LOOP for this case.
[Steve Henson]
*) Improve forward-security support: add functions
void SSL_CTX_set_not_resumable_session_callback(SSL_CTX *ctx, int (*cb)(SSL *ssl, int is_forward_secure))
void SSL_set_not_resumable_session_callback(SSL *ssl, int (*cb)(SSL *ssl, int is_forward_secure))
for use by SSL/TLS servers; the callback function will be called whenever a
new session is created, and gets to decide whether the session may be
cached to make it resumable (return 0) or not (return 1). (As by the
SSL/TLS protocol specifications, the session_id sent by the server will be
empty to indicate that the session is not resumable; also, the server will
not generate RFC 4507 (RFC 5077) session tickets.)
A simple reasonable callback implementation is to return is_forward_secure.
This parameter will be set to 1 or 0 depending on the ciphersuite selected
by the SSL/TLS server library, indicating whether it can provide forward
[Emilia Käsper <> (Google)]
*) New -verify_name option in command line utilities to set verification
parameters by name.
[Steve Henson]
Add CMAC pkey methods.
[Steve Henson]
*) Experimental renegotiation in s_server -www mode. If the client
browses /reneg connection is renegotiated. If /renegcert it is
renegotiated requesting a certificate.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add an "external" session cache for debugging purposes to s_server. This
should help trace issues which normally are only apparent in deployed
multi-process servers.
[Steve Henson]
*) Extensive audit of libcrypto with DEBUG_UNUSED. Fix many cases where
return value is ignored. NB. The functions RAND_add(), RAND_seed(),
BIO_set_cipher() and some obscure PEM functions were changed so they
can now return an error. The RAND changes required a change to the
RAND_METHOD structure.
[Steve Henson]
*) New macro __owur for "OpenSSL Warn Unused Result". This makes use of
a gcc attribute to warn if the result of a function is ignored. This
is enable if DEBUG_UNUSED is set. Add to several functions in evp.h
whose return value is often ignored.
[Steve Henson]
*) New -noct, -requestct, -requirect and -ctlogfile options for s_client.
These allow SCTs (signed certificate timestamps) to be requested and
validated when establishing a connection.
[Rob Percival <>]
Changes between 1.0.2g and 1.0.2h [3 May 2016]
*) Prevent padding oracle in AES-NI CBC MAC check
A MITM attacker can use a padding oracle attack to decrypt traffic
when the connection uses an AES CBC cipher and the server support
This issue was introduced as part of the fix for Lucky 13 padding
attack (CVE-2013-0169). The padding check was rewritten to be in
constant time by making sure that always the same bytes are read and
compared against either the MAC or padding bytes. But it no longer
checked that there was enough data to have both the MAC and padding
This issue was reported by Juraj Somorovsky using TLS-Attacker.
[Kurt Roeckx]
*) Fix EVP_EncodeUpdate overflow
An overflow can occur in the EVP_EncodeUpdate() function which is used for
Base64 encoding of binary data. If an attacker is able to supply very large
amounts of input data then a length check can overflow resulting in a heap
Internally to OpenSSL the EVP_EncodeUpdate() function is primarily used by
the PEM_write_bio* family of functions. These are mainly used within the
OpenSSL command line applications, so any application which processes data
from an untrusted source and outputs it as a PEM file should be considered
vulnerable to this issue. User applications that call these APIs directly
with large amounts of untrusted data may also be vulnerable.
This issue was reported by Guido Vranken.
[Matt Caswell]
*) Fix EVP_EncryptUpdate overflow
An overflow can occur in the EVP_EncryptUpdate() function. If an attacker
is able to supply very large amounts of input data after a previous call to
EVP_EncryptUpdate() with a partial block then a length check can overflow
resulting in a heap corruption. Following an analysis of all OpenSSL
internal usage of the EVP_EncryptUpdate() function all usage is one of two
forms. The first form is where the EVP_EncryptUpdate() call is known to be
the first called function after an EVP_EncryptInit(), and therefore that
specific call must be safe. The second form is where the length passed to
EVP_EncryptUpdate() can be seen from the code to be some small value and
therefore there is no possibility of an overflow. Since all instances are
one of these two forms, it is believed that there can be no overflows in
internal code due to this problem. It should be noted that
EVP_DecryptUpdate() can call EVP_EncryptUpdate() in certain code paths.
Also EVP_CipherUpdate() is a synonym for EVP_EncryptUpdate(). All instances
of these calls have also been analysed too and it is believed there are no
instances in internal usage where an overflow could occur.
This issue was reported by Guido Vranken.
[Matt Caswell]
*) Prevent ASN.1 BIO excessive memory allocation
When ASN.1 data is read from a BIO using functions such as d2i_CMS_bio()
a short invalid encoding can cause allocation of large amounts of memory
potentially consuming excessive resources or exhausting memory.
Any application parsing untrusted data through d2i BIO functions is
affected. The memory based functions such as d2i_X509() are *not* affected.
Since the memory based functions are used by the TLS library, TLS
applications are not affected.
This issue was reported by Brian Carpenter.
[Stephen Henson]
*) EBCDIC overread
ASN1 Strings that are over 1024 bytes can cause an overread in applications
using the X509_NAME_oneline() function on EBCDIC systems. This could result
in arbitrary stack data being returned in the buffer.
This issue was reported by Guido Vranken.
[Matt Caswell]
*) Modify behavior of ALPN to invoke callback after SNI/servername
callback, such that updates to the SSL_CTX affect ALPN.
[Todd Short]
*) Remove LOW from the DEFAULT cipher list. This removes singles DES from the
[Kurt Roeckx]
*) Only remove the SSLv2 methods with the no-ssl2-method option. When the
methods are enabled and ssl2 is disabled the methods return NULL.
[Kurt Roeckx]
Changes between 1.0.2f and 1.0.2g [1 Mar 2016]
* Disable weak ciphers in SSLv3 and up in default builds of OpenSSL.
Builds that are not configured with "enable-weak-ssl-ciphers" will not
provide any "EXPORT" or "LOW" strength ciphers.
[Viktor Dukhovni]
* Disable SSLv2 default build, default negotiation and weak ciphers. SSLv2
is by default disabled at build-time. Builds that are not configured with
"enable-ssl2" will not support SSLv2. Even if "enable-ssl2" is used,
users who want to negotiate SSLv2 via the version-flexible SSLv23_method()
will need to explicitly call either of:
SSL_CTX_clear_options(ctx, SSL_OP_NO_SSLv2);
SSL_clear_options(ssl, SSL_OP_NO_SSLv2);
as appropriate. Even if either of those is used, or the application
explicitly uses the version-specific SSLv2_method() or its client and
server variants, SSLv2 ciphers vulnerable to exhaustive search key
recovery have been removed. Specifically, the SSLv2 40-bit EXPORT
ciphers, and SSLv2 56-bit DES are no longer available.
[Viktor Dukhovni]
*) Fix a double-free in DSA code
A double free bug was discovered when OpenSSL parses malformed DSA private
keys and could lead to a DoS attack or memory corruption for applications
that receive DSA private keys from untrusted sources. This scenario is
considered rare.
This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Adam Langley(Google/BoringSSL) using
[Stephen Henson]
*) Disable SRP fake user seed to address a server memory leak.
Add a new method SRP_VBASE_get1_by_user that handles the seed properly.
SRP_VBASE_get_by_user had inconsistent memory management behaviour.
In order to fix an unavoidable memory leak, SRP_VBASE_get_by_user
was changed to ignore the "fake user" SRP seed, even if the seed
is configured.
Users should use SRP_VBASE_get1_by_user instead. Note that in
SRP_VBASE_get1_by_user, caller must free the returned value. Note
also that even though configuring the SRP seed attempts to hide
invalid usernames by continuing the handshake with fake
credentials, this behaviour is not constant time and no strong
guarantees are made that the handshake is indistinguishable from
that of a valid user.
[Emilia Käsper]
*) Fix BN_hex2bn/BN_dec2bn NULL pointer deref/heap corruption
In the BN_hex2bn function the number of hex digits is calculated using an
int value |i|. Later |bn_expand| is called with a value of |i * 4|. For
large values of |i| this can result in |bn_expand| not allocating any
memory because |i * 4| is negative. This can leave the internal BIGNUM data
field as NULL leading to a subsequent NULL ptr deref. For very large values
of |i|, the calculation |i * 4| could be a positive value smaller than |i|.
In this case memory is allocated to the internal BIGNUM data field, but it
is insufficiently sized leading to heap corruption. A similar issue exists
in BN_dec2bn. This could have security consequences if BN_hex2bn/BN_dec2bn
is ever called by user applications with very large untrusted hex/dec data.
This is anticipated to be a rare occurrence.
All OpenSSL internal usage of these functions use data that is not expected
to be untrusted, e.g. config file data or application command line
arguments. If user developed applications generate config file data based
on untrusted data then it is possible that this could also lead to security
consequences. This is also anticipated to be rare.
This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Guido Vranken.
[Matt Caswell]
*) Fix memory issues in BIO_*printf functions
The internal |fmtstr| function used in processing a "%s" format string in
the BIO_*printf functions could overflow while calculating the length of a
string and cause an OOB read when printing very long strings.
Additionally the internal |doapr_outch| function can attempt to write to an
OOB memory location (at an offset from the NULL pointer) in the event of a
memory allocation failure. In 1.0.2 and below this could be caused where
the size of a buffer to be allocated is greater than INT_MAX. E.g. this
could be in processing a very long "%s" format string. Memory leaks can
also occur.
The first issue may mask the second issue dependent on compiler behaviour.
These problems could enable attacks where large amounts of untrusted data
is passed to the BIO_*printf functions. If applications use these functions
in this way then they could be vulnerable. OpenSSL itself uses these
functions when printing out human-readable dumps of ASN.1 data. Therefore
applications that print this data could be vulnerable if the data is from
untrusted sources. OpenSSL command line applications could also be
vulnerable where they print out ASN.1 data, or if untrusted data is passed
as command line arguments.
Libssl is not considered directly vulnerable. Additionally certificates etc
received via remote connections via libssl are also unlikely to be able to
trigger these issues because of message size limits enforced within libssl.
This issue was reported to OpenSSL Guido Vranken.
[Matt Caswell]
*) Side channel attack on modular exponentiation
A side-channel attack was found which makes use of cache-bank conflicts on
the Intel Sandy-Bridge microarchitecture which could lead to the recovery
of RSA keys. The ability to exploit this issue is limited as it relies on
an attacker who has control of code in a thread running on the same
hyper-threaded core as the victim thread which is performing decryptions.
This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Yuval Yarom, The University of
Adelaide and NICTA, Daniel Genkin, Technion and Tel Aviv University, and
Nadia Heninger, University of Pennsylvania with more information at
[Andy Polyakov]
*) Change the req app to generate a 2048-bit RSA/DSA key by default,
if no keysize is specified with default_bits. This fixes an
omission in an earlier change that changed all RSA/DSA key generation
apps to use 2048 bits by default.
[Emilia Käsper]
Changes between 1.0.2e and 1.0.2f [28 Jan 2016]
*) DH small subgroups
Historically OpenSSL only ever generated DH parameters based on "safe"
primes. More recently (in version 1.0.2) support was provided for
generating X9.42 style parameter files such as those required for RFC 5114
support. The primes used in such files may not be "safe". Where an
application is using DH configured with parameters based on primes that are
not "safe" then an attacker could use this fact to find a peer's private
DH exponent. This attack requires that the attacker complete multiple
handshakes in which the peer uses the same private DH exponent. For example
this could be used to discover a TLS server's private DH exponent if it's
reusing the private DH exponent or it's using a static DH ciphersuite.
OpenSSL provides the option SSL_OP_SINGLE_DH_USE for ephemeral DH (DHE) in
TLS. It is not on by default. If the option is not set then the server
reuses the same private DH exponent for the life of the server process and
would be vulnerable to this attack. It is believed that many popular
applications do set this option and would therefore not be at risk.
The fix for this issue adds an additional check where a "q" parameter is
available (as is the case in X9.42 based parameters). This detects the
only known attack, and is the only possible defense for static DH
ciphersuites. This could have some performance impact.
Additionally the SSL_OP_SINGLE_DH_USE option has been switched on by
default and cannot be disabled. This could have some performance impact.
This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Antonio Sanso (Adobe).
[Matt Caswell]
*) SSLv2 doesn't block disabled ciphers
A malicious client can negotiate SSLv2 ciphers that have been disabled on
the server and complete SSLv2 handshakes even if all SSLv2 ciphers have
been disabled, provided that the SSLv2 protocol was not also disabled via
This issue was reported to OpenSSL on 26th December 2015 by Nimrod Aviram
and Sebastian Schinzel.
[Viktor Dukhovni]
Changes between 1.0.2d and 1.0.2e [3 Dec 2015]
*) BN_mod_exp may produce incorrect results on x86_64
There is a carry propagating bug in the x86_64 Montgomery squaring
procedure. No EC algorithms are affected. Analysis suggests that attacks
against RSA and DSA as a result of this defect would be very difficult to
perform and are not believed likely. Attacks against DH are considered just
feasible (although very difficult) because most of the work necessary to
deduce information about a private key may be performed offline. The amount
of resources required for such an attack would be very significant and
likely only accessible to a limited number of attackers. An attacker would
additionally need online access to an unpatched system using the target
private key in a scenario with persistent DH parameters and a private
key that is shared between multiple clients. For example this can occur by
default in OpenSSL DHE based SSL/TLS ciphersuites.
This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Hanno Böck.
[Andy Polyakov]
*) Certificate verify crash with missing PSS parameter
The signature verification routines will crash with a NULL pointer
dereference if presented with an ASN.1 signature using the RSA PSS
algorithm and absent mask generation function parameter. Since these
routines are used to verify certificate signature algorithms this can be
used to crash any certificate verification operation and exploited in a
DoS attack. Any application which performs certificate verification is
vulnerable including OpenSSL clients and servers which enable client
This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Loïc Jonas Etienne (Qnective AG).
[Stephen Henson]
*) X509_ATTRIBUTE memory leak
When presented with a malformed X509_ATTRIBUTE structure OpenSSL will leak
memory. This structure is used by the PKCS#7 and CMS routines so any
application which reads PKCS#7 or CMS data from untrusted sources is
affected. SSL/TLS is not affected.
This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Adam Langley (Google/BoringSSL) using
[Stephen Henson]
*) Rewrite EVP_DecodeUpdate (base64 decoding) to fix several bugs.
This changes the decoding behaviour for some invalid messages,
though the change is mostly in the more lenient direction, and
legacy behaviour is preserved as much as possible.
[Emilia Käsper]
*) In DSA_generate_parameters_ex, if the provided seed is too short,
return an error
[Rich Salz and Ismo Puustinen <>]
Changes between 1.0.2c and 1.0.2d [9 Jul 2015]
*) Alternate chains certificate forgery
During certificate verification, OpenSSL will attempt to find an
alternative certificate chain if the first attempt to build such a chain
fails. An error in the implementation of this logic can mean that an
attacker could cause certain checks on untrusted certificates to be
bypassed, such as the CA flag, enabling them to use a valid leaf
certificate to act as a CA and "issue" an invalid certificate.
This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Adam Langley/David Benjamin
[Matt Caswell]
Changes between 1.0.2b and 1.0.2c [12 Jun 2015]
*) Fix HMAC ABI incompatibility. The previous version introduced an ABI
incompatibility in the handling of HMAC. The previous ABI has now been
[Matt Caswell]
Changes between 1.0.2a and 1.0.2b [11 Jun 2015]
*) Malformed ECParameters causes infinite loop
When processing an ECParameters structure OpenSSL enters an infinite loop
if the curve specified is over a specially malformed binary polynomial
This can be used to perform denial of service against any
system which processes public keys, certificate requests or
certificates. This includes TLS clients and TLS servers with
client authentication enabled.
This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Joseph Barr-Pixton.
[Andy Polyakov]
*) Exploitable out-of-bounds read in X509_cmp_time
X509_cmp_time does not properly check the length of the ASN1_TIME
string and can read a few bytes out of bounds. In addition,
X509_cmp_time accepts an arbitrary number of fractional seconds in the
time string.
An attacker can use this to craft malformed certificates and CRLs of
various sizes and potentially cause a segmentation fault, resulting in
a DoS on applications that verify certificates or CRLs. TLS clients
that verify CRLs are affected. TLS clients and servers with client
authentication enabled may be affected if they use custom verification
This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Robert Swiecki (Google), and
independently by Hanno Böck.
[Emilia Käsper]
*) PKCS7 crash with missing EnvelopedContent
The PKCS#7 parsing code does not handle missing inner EncryptedContent
correctly. An attacker can craft malformed ASN.1-encoded PKCS#7 blobs
with missing content and trigger a NULL pointer dereference on parsing.
Applications that decrypt PKCS#7 data or otherwise parse PKCS#7
structures from untrusted sources are affected. OpenSSL clients and
servers are not affected.
This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Michal Zalewski (Google).
[Emilia Käsper]
*) CMS verify infinite loop with unknown hash function
When verifying a signedData message the CMS code can enter an infinite loop
if presented with an unknown hash function OID. This can be used to perform
denial of service against any system which verifies signedData messages using
the CMS code.
This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Johannes Bauer.
[Stephen Henson]
*) Race condition handling NewSessionTicket
If a NewSessionTicket is received by a multi-threaded client when attempting to
reuse a previous ticket then a race condition can occur potentially leading to
a double free of the ticket data.
[Matt Caswell]
*) Only support 256-bit or stronger elliptic curves with the
'ecdh_auto' setting (server) or by default (client). Of supported
curves, prefer P-256 (both).
[Emilia Kasper]
Changes between 1.0.2 and 1.0.2a [19 Mar 2015]
*) ClientHello sigalgs DoS fix
If a client connects to an OpenSSL 1.0.2 server and renegotiates with an
invalid signature algorithms extension a NULL pointer dereference will
occur. This can be exploited in a DoS attack against the server.
This issue was was reported to OpenSSL by David Ramos of Stanford
[Stephen Henson and Matt Caswell]
*) Multiblock corrupted pointer fix
OpenSSL 1.0.2 introduced the "multiblock" performance improvement. This
feature only applies on 64 bit x86 architecture platforms that support AES
NI instructions. A defect in the implementation of "multiblock" can cause
OpenSSL's internal write buffer to become incorrectly set to NULL when
using non-blocking IO. Typically, when the user application is using a
socket BIO for writing, this will only result in a failed connection.
However if some other BIO is used then it is likely that a segmentation
fault will be triggered, thus enabling a potential DoS attack.
This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Daniel Danner and Rainer Mueller.
[Matt Caswell]
*) Segmentation fault in DTLSv1_listen fix
The DTLSv1_listen function is intended to be stateless and processes the
initial ClientHello from many peers. It is common for user code to loop
over the call to DTLSv1_listen until a valid ClientHello is received with
an associated cookie. A defect in the implementation of DTLSv1_listen means
that state is preserved in the SSL object from one invocation to the next
that can lead to a segmentation fault. Errors processing the initial
ClientHello can trigger this scenario. An example of such an error could be
that a DTLS1.0 only client is attempting to connect to a DTLS1.2 only
This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Per Allansson.
[Matt Caswell]
*) Segmentation fault in ASN1_TYPE_cmp fix
The function ASN1_TYPE_cmp will crash with an invalid read if an attempt is
made to compare ASN.1 boolean types. Since ASN1_TYPE_cmp is used to check
certificate signature algorithm consistency this can be used to crash any
certificate verification operation and exploited in a DoS attack. Any
application which performs certificate verification is vulnerable including
OpenSSL clients and servers which enable client authentication.
[Stephen Henson]
*) Segmentation fault for invalid PSS parameters fix
The signature verification routines will crash with a NULL pointer
dereference if presented with an ASN.1 signature using the RSA PSS
algorithm and invalid parameters. Since these routines are used to verify
certificate signature algorithms this can be used to crash any
certificate verification operation and exploited in a DoS attack. Any
application which performs certificate verification is vulnerable including
OpenSSL clients and servers which enable client authentication.
This issue was was reported to OpenSSL by Brian Carpenter.
[Stephen Henson]
*) ASN.1 structure reuse memory corruption fix
Reusing a structure in ASN.1 parsing may allow an attacker to cause
memory corruption via an invalid write. Such reuse is and has been
strongly discouraged and is believed to be rare.
Applications that parse structures containing CHOICE or ANY DEFINED BY
components may be affected. Certificate parsing (d2i_X509 and related
functions) are however not affected. OpenSSL clients and servers are
not affected.
[Stephen Henson]
*) PKCS7 NULL pointer dereferences fix
The PKCS#7 parsing code does not handle missing outer ContentInfo
correctly. An attacker can craft malformed ASN.1-encoded PKCS#7 blobs with
missing content and trigger a NULL pointer dereference on parsing.
Applications that verify PKCS#7 signatures, decrypt PKCS#7 data or
otherwise parse PKCS#7 structures from untrusted sources are
affected. OpenSSL clients and servers are not affected.
This issue was reported to OpenSSL by Michal Zalewski (Google).
[Emilia Käsper]
*) DoS via reachable assert in SSLv2 servers fix
A malicious client can trigger an OPENSSL_assert (i.e., an abort) in
servers that both support SSLv2 and enable export cipher suites by sending
a specially crafted SSLv2 CLIENT-MASTER-KEY message.
This issue was discovered by Sean Burford (Google) and Emilia Käsper
(OpenSSL development team).
[Emilia Käsper]
*) Empty CKE with client auth and DHE fix
If client auth is used then a server can seg fault in the event of a DHE
ciphersuite being selected and a zero length ClientKeyExchange message
being sent by the client. This could be exploited in a DoS attack.
[Matt Caswell]
*) Handshake with unseeded PRNG fix
Under certain conditions an OpenSSL 1.0.2 client can complete a handshake
with an unseeded PRNG. The conditions are:
- The client is on a platform where the PRNG has not been seeded
automatically, and the user has not seeded manually
- A protocol specific client method version has been used (i.e. not
- A ciphersuite is used that does not require additional random data from
the PRNG beyond the initial ClientHello client random (e.g. PSK-RC4-SHA).
If the handshake succeeds then the client random that has been used will
have been generated from a PRNG with insufficient entropy and therefore the
output may be predictable.
For example using the following command with an unseeded openssl will
succeed on an unpatched platform:
openssl s_client -psk 1a2b3c4d -tls1_2 -cipher PSK-RC4-SHA
[Matt Caswell]
*) Use After Free following d2i_ECPrivatekey error fix
A malformed EC private key file consumed via the d2i_ECPrivateKey function
could cause a use after free condition. This, in turn, could cause a double
free in several private key parsing functions (such as d2i_PrivateKey
or EVP_PKCS82PKEY) and could lead to a DoS attack or memory corruption
for applications that receive EC private keys from untrusted
sources. This scenario is considered rare.
This issue was discovered by the BoringSSL project and fixed in their
commit 517073cd4b.
[Matt Caswell]
*) X509_to_X509_REQ NULL pointer deref fix
The function X509_to_X509_REQ will crash with a NULL pointer dereference if
the certificate key is invalid. This function is rarely used in practice.
This issue was discovered by Brian Carpenter.
[Stephen Henson]
*) Removed the export ciphers from the DEFAULT ciphers
[Kurt Roeckx]
Changes between 1.0.1l and 1.0.2 [22 Jan 2015]
*) Facilitate "universal" ARM builds targeting range of ARM ISAs, e.g.
ARMv5 through ARMv8, as opposite to "locking" it to single one.
So far those who have to target multiple platforms would compromise
and argue that binary targeting say ARMv5 would still execute on
ARMv8. "Universal" build resolves this compromise by providing
near-optimal performance even on newer platforms.
[Andy Polyakov]
*) Accelerated NIST P-256 elliptic curve implementation for x86_64
(other platforms pending).
[Shay Gueron & Vlad Krasnov (Intel Corp), Andy Polyakov]
*) Add support for the SignedCertificateTimestampList certificate and
OCSP response extensions from RFC6962.
[Rob Stradling]
*) Fix ec_GFp_simple_points_make_affine (thus, EC_POINTs_mul etc.)
for corner cases. (Certain input points at infinity could lead to
bogus results, with non-infinity inputs mapped to infinity too.)
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Initial support for PowerISA 2.0.7, first implemented in POWER8.
This covers AES, SHA256/512 and GHASH. "Initial" means that most
common cases are optimized and there still is room for further
improvements. Vector Permutation AES for Altivec is also added.
[Andy Polyakov]
*) Add support for little-endian ppc64 Linux target.
[Marcelo Cerri (IBM)]
*) Initial support for AMRv8 ISA crypto extensions. This covers AES,
SHA1, SHA256 and GHASH. "Initial" means that most common cases
are optimized and there still is room for further improvements.
Both 32- and 64-bit modes are supported.
[Andy Polyakov, Ard Biesheuvel (Linaro)]
*) Improved ARMv7 NEON support.
[Andy Polyakov]
*) Support for SPARC Architecture 2011 crypto extensions, first
implemented in SPARC T4. This covers AES, DES, Camellia, SHA1,
SHA256/512, MD5, GHASH and modular exponentiation.
[Andy Polyakov, David Miller]
*) Accelerated modular exponentiation for Intel processors, a.k.a.
[Shay Gueron & Vlad Krasnov (Intel Corp)]
*) Support for new and upcoming Intel processors, including AVX2,
BMI and SHA ISA extensions. This includes additional "stitched"
implementations, AESNI-SHA256 and GCM, and multi-buffer support
for TLS encrypt.
This work was sponsored by Intel Corp.
[Andy Polyakov]
*) Support for DTLS 1.2. This adds two sets of DTLS methods: DTLS_*_method()
supports both DTLS 1.2 and 1.0 and should use whatever version the peer
supports and DTLSv1_2_*_method() which supports DTLS 1.2 only.
[Steve Henson]
*) Use algorithm specific chains in SSL_CTX_use_certificate_chain_file():
this fixes a limitation in previous versions of OpenSSL.
[Steve Henson]
*) Extended RSA OAEP support via EVP_PKEY API. Options to specify digest,
MGF1 digest and OAEP label.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add EVP support for key wrapping algorithms, to avoid problems with
existing code the flag EVP_CIPHER_CTX_WRAP_ALLOW has to be set in
the EVP_CIPHER_CTX or an error is returned. Add AES and DES3 wrap
algorithms and include tests cases.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add functions to allocate and set the fields of an ECDSA_METHOD
[Douglas E. Engert, Steve Henson]
*) New functions OPENSSL_gmtime_diff and ASN1_TIME_diff to find the
difference in days and seconds between two tm or ASN1_TIME structures.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add -rev test option to s_server to just reverse order of characters
received by client and send back to server. Also prints an abbreviated
summary of the connection parameters.
[Steve Henson]
*) New option -brief for s_client and s_server to print out a brief summary
of connection parameters.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add callbacks for arbitrary TLS extensions.
[Trevor Perrin <> and Ben Laurie]
*) New option -crl_download in several openssl utilities to download CRLs
from CRLDP extension in certificates.
[Steve Henson]
*) New options -CRL and -CRLform for s_client and s_server for CRLs.
[Steve Henson]
*) New function X509_CRL_diff to generate a delta CRL from the difference
of two full CRLs. Add support to "crl" utility.
[Steve Henson]
*) New functions to set lookup_crls function and to retrieve
X509_STORE from X509_STORE_CTX.
[Steve Henson]
*) Print out deprecated issuer and subject unique ID fields in
[Steve Henson]
*) Extend OCSP I/O functions so they can be used for simple general purpose
HTTP as well as OCSP. New wrapper function which can be used to download
CRLs using the OCSP API.
[Steve Henson]
*) Delegate command line handling in s_client/s_server to SSL_CONF APIs.
[Steve Henson]
*) SSL_CONF* functions. These provide a common framework for application
configuration using configuration files or command lines.
[Steve Henson]
*) SSL/TLS tracing code. This parses out SSL/TLS records using the
message callback and prints the results. Needs compile time option
"enable-ssl-trace". New options to s_client and s_server to enable
[Steve Henson]
*) New ctrl and macro to retrieve supported points extensions.
Print out extension in s_server and s_client.
[Steve Henson]
*) New functions to retrieve certificate signature and signature
[Steve Henson]
*) Add functions to retrieve and manipulate the raw cipherlist sent by a
client to OpenSSL.
[Steve Henson]
*) New Suite B modes for TLS code. These use and enforce the requirements
of RFC6460: restrict ciphersuites, only permit Suite B algorithms and
only use Suite B curves. The Suite B modes can be set by using the
strings "SUITEB128", "SUITEB192" or "SUITEB128ONLY" for the cipherstring.
[Steve Henson]
*) New chain verification flags for Suite B levels of security. Check
algorithms are acceptable when flags are set in X509_verify_cert.
[Steve Henson]
*) Make tls1_check_chain return a set of flags indicating checks passed
by a certificate chain. Add additional tests to handle client
certificates: checks for matching certificate type and issuer name
[Steve Henson]
*) If an attempt is made to use a signature algorithm not in the peer
preference list abort the handshake. If client has no suitable
signature algorithms in response to a certificate request do not
use the certificate.
[Steve Henson]
*) If server EC tmp key is not in client preference list abort handshake.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add support for certificate stores in CERT structure. This makes it
possible to have different stores per SSL structure or one store in
the parent SSL_CTX. Include distinct stores for certificate chain
verification and chain building. New ctrl SSL_CTRL_BUILD_CERT_CHAIN
to build and store a certificate chain in CERT structure: returing
an error if the chain cannot be built: this will allow applications
to test if a chain is correctly configured.
Note: if the CERT based stores are not set then the parent SSL_CTX
store is used to retain compatibility with existing behaviour.
[Steve Henson]
*) New function ssl_set_client_disabled to set a ciphersuite disabled
mask based on the current session, check mask when sending client
hello and checking the requested ciphersuite.
[Steve Henson]
*) New ctrls to retrieve and set certificate types in a certificate
request message. Print out received values in s_client. If certificate
types is not set with custom values set sensible values based on
supported signature algorithms.
[Steve Henson]
*) Support for distinct client and server supported signature algorithms.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add certificate callback. If set this is called whenever a certificate
is required by client or server. An application can decide which
certificate chain to present based on arbitrary criteria: for example
supported signature algorithms. Add very simple example to s_server.
This fixes many of the problems and restrictions of the existing client
certificate callback: for example you can now clear an existing
certificate and specify the whole chain.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add new "valid_flags" field to CERT_PKEY structure which determines what
the certificate can be used for (if anything). Set valid_flags field
in new tls1_check_chain function. Simplify ssl_set_cert_masks which used
to have similar checks in it.
Add new "cert_flags" field to CERT structure and include a "strict mode".
This enforces some TLS certificate requirements (such as only permitting
certificate signature algorithms contained in the supported algorithms
extension) which some implementations ignore: this option should be used
with caution as it could cause interoperability issues.
[Steve Henson]
*) Update and tidy signature algorithm extension processing. Work out
shared signature algorithms based on preferences and peer algorithms
and print them out in s_client and s_server. Abort handshake if no
shared signature algorithms.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add new functions to allow customised supported signature algorithms
for SSL and SSL_CTX structures. Add options to s_client and s_server
to support them.
[Steve Henson]
*) New function SSL_certs_clear() to delete all references to certificates
from an SSL structure. Before this once a certificate had been added
it couldn't be removed.
[Steve Henson]
*) Integrate hostname, email address and IP address checking with certificate
verification. New verify options supporting checking in openssl utility.
[Steve Henson]
*) Fixes and wildcard matching support to hostname and email checking
functions. Add manual page.
[Florian Weimer (Red Hat Product Security Team)]
*) New functions to check a hostname email or IP address against a
certificate. Add options x509 utility to print results of checks against
a certificate.
[Steve Henson]
*) Fix OCSP checking.
[Rob Stradling <> and Ben Laurie]
*) Initial experimental support for explicitly trusted non-root CAs.
OpenSSL still tries to build a complete chain to a root but if an
intermediate CA has a trust setting included that is used. The first
setting is used: whether to trust (e.g., -addtrust option to the x509
utility) or reject.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add -trusted_first option which attempts to find certificates in the
trusted store even if an untrusted chain is also supplied.
[Steve Henson]
*) MIPS assembly pack updates: support for MIPS32r2 and SmartMIPS ASE,
platform support for Linux and Android.
[Andy Polyakov]
*) Support for linux-x32, ILP32 environment in x86_64 framework.
[Andy Polyakov]
*) Experimental multi-implementation support for FIPS capable OpenSSL.
When in FIPS mode the approved implementations are used as normal,
when not in FIPS mode the internal unapproved versions are used instead.
This means that the FIPS capable OpenSSL isn't forced to use the
(often lower performance) FIPS implementations outside FIPS mode.
[Steve Henson]
*) Transparently support X9.42 DH parameters when calling
PEM_read_bio_DHparameters. This means existing applications can handle
the new parameter format automatically.
[Steve Henson]
*) Initial experimental support for X9.42 DH parameter format: mainly
to support use of 'q' parameter for RFC5114 parameters.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add DH parameters from RFC5114 including test data to dhtest.
[Steve Henson]
*) Support for automatic EC temporary key parameter selection. If enabled
the most preferred EC parameters are automatically used instead of
hardcoded fixed parameters. Now a server just has to call:
SSL_CTX_set_ecdh_auto(ctx, 1) and the server will automatically
support ECDH and use the most appropriate parameters.
[Steve Henson]
*) Enhance and tidy EC curve and point format TLS extension code. Use
static structures instead of allocation if default values are used.
New ctrls to set curves we wish to support and to retrieve shared curves.
Print out shared curves in s_server. New options to s_server and s_client
to set list of supported curves.
[Steve Henson]
*) New ctrls to retrieve supported signature algorithms and
supported curve values as an array of NIDs. Extend openssl utility
to print out received values.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add new APIs EC_curve_nist2nid and EC_curve_nid2nist which convert
between NIDs and the more common NIST names such as "P-256". Enhance
ecparam utility and ECC method to recognise the NIST names for curves.
[Steve Henson]
*) Enhance SSL/TLS certificate chain handling to support different
chains for each certificate instead of one chain in the parent SSL_CTX.
[Steve Henson]
*) Support for fixed DH ciphersuite client authentication: where both
server and client use DH certificates with common parameters.
[Steve Henson]
*) Support for fixed DH ciphersuites: those requiring DH server
[Steve Henson]
*) New function i2d_re_X509_tbs for re-encoding the TBS portion of
the certificate.
Note: Related 1.0.2-beta specific macros X509_get_cert_info,
X509_CINF_set_modified, X509_CINF_get_issuer, X509_CINF_get_extensions and
X509_CINF_get_signature were reverted post internal team review.
Changes between 1.0.1k and 1.0.1l [15 Jan 2015]
*) Build fixes for the Windows and OpenVMS platforms
[Matt Caswell and Richard Levitte]
Changes between 1.0.1j and 1.0.1k [8 Jan 2015]
*) Fix DTLS segmentation fault in dtls1_get_record. A carefully crafted DTLS
message can cause a segmentation fault in OpenSSL due to a NULL pointer
dereference. This could lead to a Denial Of Service attack. Thanks to
Markus Stenberg of Cisco Systems, Inc. for reporting this issue.
[Steve Henson]
*) Fix DTLS memory leak in dtls1_buffer_record. A memory leak can occur in the
dtls1_buffer_record function under certain conditions. In particular this
could occur if an attacker sent repeated DTLS records with the same
sequence number but for the next epoch. The memory leak could be exploited
by an attacker in a Denial of Service attack through memory exhaustion.
Thanks to Chris Mueller for reporting this issue.
[Matt Caswell]
*) Fix issue where no-ssl3 configuration sets method to NULL. When openssl is
built with the no-ssl3 option and a SSL v3 ClientHello is received the ssl
method would be set to NULL which could later result in a NULL pointer
dereference. Thanks to Frank Schmirler for reporting this issue.
[Kurt Roeckx]
*) Abort handshake if server key exchange message is omitted for ephemeral
ECDH ciphersuites.
Thanks to Karthikeyan Bhargavan of the PROSECCO team at INRIA for
reporting this issue.
[Steve Henson]
*) Remove non-export ephemeral RSA code on client and server. This code
violated the TLS standard by allowing the use of temporary RSA keys in
non-export ciphersuites and could be used by a server to effectively
downgrade the RSA key length used to a value smaller than the server
certificate. Thanks for Karthikeyan Bhargavan of the PROSECCO team at
INRIA or reporting this issue.
[Steve Henson]
*) Fixed issue where DH client certificates are accepted without verification.
An OpenSSL server will accept a DH certificate for client authentication
without the certificate verify message. This effectively allows a client to
authenticate without the use of a private key. This only affects servers
which trust a client certificate authority which issues certificates
containing DH keys: these are extremely rare and hardly ever encountered.
Thanks for Karthikeyan Bhargavan of the PROSECCO team at INRIA or reporting
this issue.
[Steve Henson]
*) Ensure that the session ID context of an SSL is updated when its
SSL_CTX is updated via SSL_set_SSL_CTX.
The session ID context is typically set from the parent SSL_CTX,
and can vary with the CTX.
[Adam Langley]
*) Fix various certificate fingerprint issues.
By using non-DER or invalid encodings outside the signed portion of a
certificate the fingerprint can be changed without breaking the signature.
Although no details of the signed portion of the certificate can be changed
this can cause problems with some applications: e.g. those using the
certificate fingerprint for blacklists.
1. Reject signatures with non zero unused bits.
If the BIT STRING containing the signature has non zero unused bits reject
the signature. All current signature algorithms require zero unused bits.
2. Check certificate algorithm consistency.
Check the AlgorithmIdentifier inside TBS matches the one in the
certificate signature. NB: this will result in signature failure
errors for some broken certificates.
Thanks to Konrad Kraszewski from Google for reporting this issue.
3. Check DSA/ECDSA signatures use DER.
Reencode DSA/ECDSA signatures and compare with the original received
signature. Return an error if there is a mismatch.
This will reject various cases including garbage after signature
(thanks to Antti Karjalainen and Tuomo Untinen from the Codenomicon CROSS
program for discovering this case) and use of BER or invalid ASN.1 INTEGERs
(negative or with leading zeroes).
Further analysis was conducted and fixes were developed by Stephen Henson
of the OpenSSL core team.
[Steve Henson]
*) Correct Bignum squaring. Bignum squaring (BN_sqr) may produce incorrect
results on some platforms, including x86_64. This bug occurs at random
with a very low probability, and is not known to be exploitable in any
way, though its exact impact is difficult to determine. Thanks to Pieter
Wuille (Blockstream) who reported this issue and also suggested an initial
fix. Further analysis was conducted by the OpenSSL development team and
Adam Langley of Google. The final fix was developed by Andy Polyakov of
the OpenSSL core team.
[Andy Polyakov]
*) Do not resume sessions on the server if the negotiated protocol
version does not match the session's version. Resuming with a different
version, while not strictly forbidden by the RFC, is of questionable
sanity and breaks all known clients.
[David Benjamin, Emilia Käsper]
*) Tighten handling of the ChangeCipherSpec (CCS) message: reject
early CCS messages during renegotiation. (Note that because
renegotiation is encrypted, this early CCS was not exploitable.)
[Emilia Käsper]
*) Tighten client-side session ticket handling during renegotiation:
ensure that the client only accepts a session ticket if the server sends
the extension anew in the ServerHello. Previously, a TLS client would
reuse the old extension state and thus accept a session ticket if one was
announced in the initial ServerHello.
Similarly, ensure that the client requires a session ticket if one
was advertised in the ServerHello. Previously, a TLS client would
ignore a missing NewSessionTicket message.
[Emilia Käsper]
Changes between 1.0.1i and 1.0.1j [15 Oct 2014]
*) SRTP Memory Leak.
A flaw in the DTLS SRTP extension parsing code allows an attacker, who
sends a carefully crafted handshake message, to cause OpenSSL to fail
to free up to 64k of memory causing a memory leak. This could be
exploited in a Denial Of Service attack. This issue affects OpenSSL
1.0.1 server implementations for both SSL/TLS and DTLS regardless of
whether SRTP is used or configured. Implementations of OpenSSL that
have been compiled with OPENSSL_NO_SRTP defined are not affected.
The fix was developed by the OpenSSL team.
[OpenSSL team]
*) Session Ticket Memory Leak.
When an OpenSSL SSL/TLS/DTLS server receives a session ticket the
integrity of that ticket is first verified. In the event of a session
ticket integrity check failing, OpenSSL will fail to free memory
causing a memory leak. By sending a large number of invalid session
tickets an attacker could exploit this issue in a Denial Of Service
[Steve Henson]
*) Build option no-ssl3 is incomplete.
When OpenSSL is configured with "no-ssl3" as a build option, servers
could accept and complete a SSL 3.0 handshake, and clients could be
configured to send them.
[Akamai and the OpenSSL team]
*) Add support for TLS_FALLBACK_SCSV.
Client applications doing fallback retries should call
[Adam Langley, Bodo Moeller]
*) Add additional DigestInfo checks.
Reencode DigestInto in DER and check against the original when
verifying RSA signature: this will reject any improperly encoded
DigestInfo structures.
Note: this is a precautionary measure and no attacks are currently known.
[Steve Henson]
Changes between 1.0.1h and 1.0.1i [6 Aug 2014]
*) Fix SRP buffer overrun vulnerability. Invalid parameters passed to the
SRP code can be overrun an internal buffer. Add sanity check that
g, A, B < N to SRP code.
Thanks to Sean Devlin and Watson Ladd of Cryptography Services, NCC
Group for discovering this issue.
[Steve Henson]
*) A flaw in the OpenSSL SSL/TLS server code causes the server to negotiate
TLS 1.0 instead of higher protocol versions when the ClientHello message
is badly fragmented. This allows a man-in-the-middle attacker to force a
downgrade to TLS 1.0 even if both the server and the client support a
higher protocol version, by modifying the client's TLS records.
Thanks to David Benjamin and Adam Langley (Google) for discovering and
researching this issue.
[David Benjamin]
*) OpenSSL DTLS clients enabling anonymous (EC)DH ciphersuites are subject
to a denial of service attack. A malicious server can crash the client
with a null pointer dereference (read) by specifying an anonymous (EC)DH
ciphersuite and sending carefully crafted handshake messages.
Thanks to Felix Gröbert (Google) for discovering and researching this
[Emilia Käsper]
*) By sending carefully crafted DTLS packets an attacker could cause openssl
to leak memory. This can be exploited through a Denial of Service attack.
Thanks to Adam Langley for discovering and researching this issue.
[Adam Langley]
*) An attacker can force openssl to consume large amounts of memory whilst
processing DTLS handshake messages. This can be exploited through a
Denial of Service attack.
Thanks to Adam Langley for discovering and researching this issue.
[Adam Langley]
*) An attacker can force an error condition which causes openssl to crash
whilst processing DTLS packets due to memory being freed twice. This
can be exploited through a Denial of Service attack.
Thanks to Adam Langley and Wan-Teh Chang for discovering and researching
this issue.
[Adam Langley]
*) If a multithreaded client connects to a malicious server using a resumed
session and the server sends an ec point format extension it could write
up to 255 bytes to freed memory.
Thanks to Gabor Tyukasz (LogMeIn Inc) for discovering and researching this
[Gabor Tyukasz]
*) A malicious server can crash an OpenSSL client with a null pointer
dereference (read) by specifying an SRP ciphersuite even though it was not
properly negotiated with the client. This can be exploited through a
Denial of Service attack.
Thanks to Joonas Kuorilehto and Riku Hietamäki (Codenomicon) for
discovering and researching this issue.
[Steve Henson]
*) A flaw in OBJ_obj2txt may cause pretty printing functions such as
X509_name_oneline, X509_name_print_ex et al. to leak some information
from the stack. Applications may be affected if they echo pretty printing
output to the attacker.
Thanks to Ivan Fratric (Google) for discovering this issue.
[Emilia Käsper, and Steve Henson]
*) Fix ec_GFp_simple_points_make_affine (thus, EC_POINTs_mul etc.)
for corner cases. (Certain input points at infinity could lead to
bogus results, with non-infinity inputs mapped to infinity too.)
[Bodo Moeller]
Changes between 1.0.1g and 1.0.1h [5 Jun 2014]
*) Fix for SSL/TLS MITM flaw. An attacker using a carefully crafted
handshake can force the use of weak keying material in OpenSSL
SSL/TLS clients and servers.
Thanks to KIKUCHI Masashi (Lepidum Co. Ltd.) for discovering and
researching this issue. (CVE-2014-0224)
[KIKUCHI Masashi, Steve Henson]
*) Fix DTLS recursion flaw. By sending an invalid DTLS handshake to an
OpenSSL DTLS client the code can be made to recurse eventually crashing
in a DoS attack.
Thanks to Imre Rad (Search-Lab Ltd.) for discovering this issue.
[Imre Rad, Steve Henson]
*) Fix DTLS invalid fragment vulnerability. A buffer overrun attack can
be triggered by sending invalid DTLS fragments to an OpenSSL DTLS
client or server. This is potentially exploitable to run arbitrary
code on a vulnerable client or server.
Thanks to Jüri Aedla for reporting this issue. (CVE-2014-0195)
[Jüri Aedla, Steve Henson]
*) Fix bug in TLS code where clients enable anonymous ECDH ciphersuites
are subject to a denial of service attack.
Thanks to Felix Gröbert and Ivan Fratric at Google for discovering
this issue. (CVE-2014-3470)
[Felix Gröbert, Ivan Fratric, Steve Henson]
*) Harmonize version and its documentation. -f flag is used to display
compilation flags.
[mancha <>]
*) Fix eckey_priv_encode so it immediately returns an error upon a failure
in i2d_ECPrivateKey.
[mancha <>]
*) Fix some double frees. These are not thought to be exploitable.
[mancha <>]
Changes between 1.0.1f and 1.0.1g [7 Apr 2014]
*) A missing bounds check in the handling of the TLS heartbeat extension
can be used to reveal up to 64k of memory to a connected client or
Thanks for Neel Mehta of Google Security for discovering this bug and to
Adam Langley <> and Bodo Moeller <> for
preparing the fix (CVE-2014-0160)
[Adam Langley, Bodo Moeller]
*) Fix for the attack described in the paper "Recovering OpenSSL
ECDSA Nonces Using the FLUSH+RELOAD Cache Side-channel Attack"
by Yuval Yarom and Naomi Benger. Details can be obtained from:
Thanks to Yuval Yarom and Naomi Benger for discovering this
flaw and to Yuval Yarom for supplying a fix (CVE-2014-0076)
[Yuval Yarom and Naomi Benger]
*) TLS pad extension: draft-agl-tls-padding-03
Workaround for the "TLS hang bug" (see FAQ and PR#2771): if the
TLS client Hello record length value would otherwise be > 255 and
less that 512 pad with a dummy extension containing zeroes so it
is at least 512 bytes long.
[Adam Langley, Steve Henson]
Changes between 1.0.1e and 1.0.1f [6 Jan 2014]
*) Fix for TLS record tampering bug. A carefully crafted invalid
handshake could crash OpenSSL with a NULL pointer exception.
Thanks to Anton Johansson for reporting this issues.
*) Keep original DTLS digest and encryption contexts in retransmission
structures so we can use the previous session parameters if they need
to be resent. (CVE-2013-6450)
[Steve Henson]
*) Add option SSL_OP_SAFARI_ECDHE_ECDSA_BUG (part of SSL_OP_ALL) which
avoids preferring ECDHE-ECDSA ciphers when the client appears to be
Safari on OS X. Safari on OS X 10.8..10.8.3 advertises support for
several ECDHE-ECDSA ciphers, but fails to negotiate them. The bug
is fixed in OS X 10.8.4, but Apple have ruled out both hot fixing
10.8..10.8.3 and forcing users to upgrade to 10.8.4 or newer.
[Rob Stradling, Adam Langley]
Changes between 1.0.1d and 1.0.1e [11 Feb 2013]
*) Correct fix for CVE-2013-0169. The original didn't work on AES-NI
supporting platforms or when small records were transferred.
[Andy Polyakov, Steve Henson]
Changes between 1.0.1c and 1.0.1d [5 Feb 2013]
*) Make the decoding of SSLv3, TLS and DTLS CBC records constant time.
This addresses the flaw in CBC record processing discovered by
Nadhem Alfardan and Kenny Paterson. Details of this attack can be found
Thanks go to Nadhem Alfardan and Kenny Paterson of the Information
Security Group at Royal Holloway, University of London
( for discovering this flaw and Adam Langley and
Emilia Käsper for the initial patch.
[Emilia Käsper, Adam Langley, Ben Laurie, Andy Polyakov, Steve Henson]
*) Fix flaw in AESNI handling of TLS 1.2 and 1.1 records for CBC mode
ciphersuites which can be exploited in a denial of service attack.
Thanks go to and to Adam Langley <> for discovering
and detecting this bug and to Wolfgang Ettlinger
<> for independently discovering this issue.
[Adam Langley]
*) Return an error when checking OCSP signatures when key is NULL.
This fixes a DoS attack. (CVE-2013-0166)
[Steve Henson]
*) Make openssl verify return errors.
[Chris Palmer <> and Ben Laurie]
*) Call OCSP Stapling callback after ciphersuite has been chosen, so
the right response is stapled. Also change SSL_get_certificate()
so it returns the certificate actually sent.
[Rob Stradling <>]
*) Fix possible deadlock when decoding public keys.
[Steve Henson]
*) Don't use TLS 1.0 record version number in initial client hello
if renegotiating.
[Steve Henson]
Changes between 1.0.1b and 1.0.1c [10 May 2012]
*) Sanity check record length before skipping explicit IV in TLS
1.2, 1.1 and DTLS to fix DoS attack.
Thanks to Codenomicon for discovering this issue using Fuzz-o-Matic
fuzzing as a service testing platform.
[Steve Henson]
*) Initialise tkeylen properly when encrypting CMS messages.
Thanks to Solar Designer of Openwall for reporting this issue.
[Steve Henson]
*) In FIPS mode don't try to use composite ciphers as they are not
[Steve Henson]
Changes between 1.0.1a and 1.0.1b [26 Apr 2012]
*) OpenSSL 1.0.0 sets SSL_OP_ALL to 0x80000FFFL and OpenSSL 1.0.1 and
1.0.1a set SSL_OP_NO_TLSv1_1 to 0x00000400L which would unfortunately
mean any application compiled against OpenSSL 1.0.0 headers setting
SSL_OP_ALL would also set SSL_OP_NO_TLSv1_1, unintentionally disablng
TLS 1.1 also. Fix this by changing the value of SSL_OP_NO_TLSv1_1 to
0x10000000L Any application which was previously compiled against
OpenSSL 1.0.1 or 1.0.1a headers and which cares about SSL_OP_NO_TLSv1_1
will need to be recompiled as a result. Letting be results in
inability to disable specifically TLS 1.1 and in client context,
in unlike event, limit maximum offered version to TLS 1.0 [see below].
[Steve Henson]
*) In order to ensure interoperabilty SSL_OP_NO_protocolX does not
disable just protocol X, but all protocols above X *if* there are
protocols *below* X still enabled. In more practical terms it means
that if application wants to disable TLS1.0 in favor of TLS1.1 and
above, it's not sufficient to pass SSL_OP_NO_TLSv1, one has to pass
SSL_OP_NO_TLSv1|SSL_OP_NO_SSLv3|SSL_OP_NO_SSLv2. This applies to
client side.
[Andy Polyakov]
Changes between 1.0.1 and 1.0.1a [19 Apr 2012]
*) Check for potentially exploitable overflows in asn1_d2i_read_bio
BUF_mem_grow and BUF_mem_grow_clean. Refuse attempts to shrink buffer
in CRYPTO_realloc_clean.
Thanks to Tavis Ormandy, Google Security Team, for discovering this
issue and to Adam Langley <> for fixing it.
[Adam Langley (Google), Tavis Ormandy, Google Security Team]
*) Don't allow TLS 1.2 SHA-256 ciphersuites in TLS 1.0, 1.1 connections.
[Adam Langley]
*) Workarounds for some broken servers that "hang" if a client hello
record length exceeds 255 bytes.
1. Do not use record version number > TLS 1.0 in initial client
hello: some (but not all) hanging servers will now work.
2. If we set OPENSSL_MAX_TLS1_2_CIPHER_LENGTH this will truncate
the number of ciphers sent in the client hello. This should be
set to an even number, such as 50, for example by passing:
-DOPENSSL_MAX_TLS1_2_CIPHER_LENGTH=50 to config or Configure.
Most broken servers should now work.
3. If all else fails setting OPENSSL_NO_TLS1_2_CLIENT will disable
TLS 1.2 client support entirely.
[Steve Henson]
*) Fix SEGV in Vector Permutation AES module observed in OpenSSH.
[Andy Polyakov]
Changes between 1.0.0h and 1.0.1 [14 Mar 2012]
*) Add compatibility with old MDC2 signatures which use an ASN1 OCTET
STRING form instead of a DigestInfo.
[Steve Henson]
*) The format used for MDC2 RSA signatures is inconsistent between EVP
and the RSA_sign/RSA_verify functions. This was made more apparent when
OpenSSL used RSA_sign/RSA_verify for some RSA signatures in particular
those which went through EVP_PKEY_METHOD in 1.0.0 and later. Detect
the correct format in RSA_verify so both forms transparently work.
[Steve Henson]
*) Some servers which support TLS 1.0 can choke if we initially indicate
support for TLS 1.2 and later renegotiate using TLS 1.0 in the RSA
encrypted premaster secret. As a workaround use the maximum permitted
client version in client hello, this should keep such servers happy
and still work with previous versions of OpenSSL.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add support for TLS/DTLS heartbeats.
[Robin Seggelmann <>]
*) Add support for SCTP.
[Robin Seggelmann <>]
*) Improved PRNG seeding for VOS.
[Paul Green <>]
*) Extensive assembler packs updates, most notably:
- x86[_64]: AES-NI, PCLMULQDQ, RDRAND support;
- x86[_64]: SSSE3 support (SHA1, vector-permutation AES);
- x86_64: bit-sliced AES implementation;
- ARM: NEON support, contemporary platforms optimizations;
- s390x: z196 support;
- *: GHASH and GF(2^m) multiplication implementations;
[Andy Polyakov]
*) Make TLS-SRP code conformant with RFC 5054 API cleanup
(removal of unnecessary code)
[Peter Sylvester <>]
*) Add TLS key material exporter from RFC 5705.
[Eric Rescorla]
*) Add DTLS-SRTP negotiation from RFC 5764.
[Eric Rescorla]
*) Add Next Protocol Negotiation, Can be
disabled with a no-npn flag to config or Configure. Code donated
by Google.
[Adam Langley <> and Ben Laurie]
*) Add optional 64-bit optimized implementations of elliptic curves NIST-P224,
NIST-P256, NIST-P521, with constant-time single point multiplication on
typical inputs. Compiler support for the nonstandard type __uint128_t is
required to use this (present in gcc 4.4 and later, for 64-bit builds).
Code made available under Apache License version 2.0.
Specify "enable-ec_nistp_64_gcc_128" on the Configure (or config) command
line to include this in your build of OpenSSL, and run "make depend" (or
"make update"). This enables the following EC_METHODs:
EC_GROUP_new_by_curve_name() will automatically use these (while
EC_GROUP_new_curve_GFp() currently prefers the more flexible
[Emilia Käsper, Adam Langley, Bodo Moeller (Google)]
*) Use type ossl_ssize_t instad of ssize_t which isn't available on
all platforms. Move ssize_t definition from e_os.h to the public
header file e_os2.h as it now appears in public header file cms.h
[Steve Henson]
*) New -sigopt option to the ca, req and x509 utilities. Additional
signature parameters can be passed using this option and in
particular PSS.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add RSA PSS signing function. This will generate and set the
appropriate AlgorithmIdentifiers for PSS based on those in the
corresponding EVP_MD_CTX structure. No application support yet.
[Steve Henson]
*) Support for companion algorithm specific ASN1 signing routines.
New function ASN1_item_sign_ctx() signs a pre-initialised
EVP_MD_CTX structure and sets AlgorithmIdentifiers based on
the appropriate parameters.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add new algorithm specific ASN1 verification initialisation function
to EVP_PKEY_ASN1_METHOD: this is not in EVP_PKEY_METHOD since the ASN1
handling will be the same no matter what EVP_PKEY_METHOD is used.
Add a PSS handler to support verification of PSS signatures: checked
against a number of sample certificates.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add signature printing for PSS. Add PSS OIDs.
[Steve Henson, Martin Kaiser <>]
*) Add algorithm specific signature printing. An individual ASN1 method
can now print out signatures instead of the standard hex dump.
More complex signatures (e.g. PSS) can print out more meaningful
information. Include DSA version that prints out the signature
parameters r, s.
[Steve Henson]
*) Password based recipient info support for CMS library: implementing
[Steve Henson]
*) Split password based encryption into PBES2 and PBKDF2 functions. This
neatly separates the code into cipher and PBE sections and is required
for some algorithms that split PBES2 into separate pieces (such as
password based CMS).
[Steve Henson]
*) Session-handling fixes:
- Fix handling of connections that are resuming with a session ID,
but also support Session Tickets.
- Fix a bug that suppressed issuing of a new ticket if the client
presented a ticket with an expired session.
- Try to set the ticket lifetime hint to something reasonable.
- Make tickets shorter by excluding irrelevant information.
- On the client side, don't ignore renewed tickets.
[Adam Langley, Bodo Moeller (Google)]
*) Fix PSK session representation.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Add RC4-MD5 and AESNI-SHA1 "stitched" implementations.
This work was sponsored by Intel.
[Andy Polyakov]
*) Add GCM support to TLS library. Some custom code is needed to split
the IV between the fixed (from PRF) and explicit (from TLS record)
portions. This adds all GCM ciphersuites supported by RFC5288 and
RFC5289. Generalise some AES* cipherstrings to include GCM and
add a special AESGCM string for GCM only.
[Steve Henson]
*) Expand range of ctrls for AES GCM. Permit setting invocation
field on decrypt and retrieval of invocation field only on encrypt.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add HMAC ECC ciphersuites from RFC5289. Include SHA384 PRF support.
As required by RFC5289 these ciphersuites cannot be used if for
versions of TLS earlier than 1.2.
[Steve Henson]
*) For FIPS capable OpenSSL interpret a NULL default public key method
as unset and return the appropriate default but do *not* set the default.
This means we can return the appropriate method in applications that
switch between FIPS and non-FIPS modes.
[Steve Henson]
*) Redirect HMAC and CMAC operations to FIPS module in FIPS mode. If an
ENGINE is used then we cannot handle that in the FIPS module so we
keep original code iff non-FIPS operations are allowed.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add -attime option to openssl utilities.
[Peter Eckersley <>, Ben Laurie and Steve Henson]
*) Redirect DSA and DH operations to FIPS module in FIPS mode.
[Steve Henson]
*) Redirect ECDSA and ECDH operations to FIPS module in FIPS mode. Also use
FIPS EC methods unconditionally for now.
[Steve Henson]
*) New build option no-ec2m to disable characteristic 2 code.
[Steve Henson]
*) Backport libcrypto audit of return value checking from 1.1.0-dev; not
all cases can be covered as some introduce binary incompatibilities.
[Steve Henson]
*) Redirect RSA operations to FIPS module including keygen,
encrypt, decrypt, sign and verify. Block use of non FIPS RSA methods.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add similar low level API blocking to ciphers.
[Steve Henson]
*) Low level digest APIs are not approved in FIPS mode: any attempt
to use these will cause a fatal error. Applications that *really* want
to use them can use the private_* version instead.
[Steve Henson]
*) Redirect cipher operations to FIPS module for FIPS builds.
[Steve Henson]
*) Redirect digest operations to FIPS module for FIPS builds.
[Steve Henson]
*) Update build system to add "fips" flag which will link in fipscanister.o
for static and shared library builds embedding a signature if needed.
[Steve Henson]
*) Output TLS supported curves in preference order instead of numerical
order. This is currently hardcoded for the highest order curves first.
This should be configurable so applications can judge speed vs strength.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add TLS v1.2 server support for client authentication.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add support for FIPS mode in ssl library: disable SSLv3, non-FIPS ciphers
and enable MD5.
[Steve Henson]
*) Functions FIPS_mode_set() and FIPS_mode() which call the underlying
FIPS modules versions.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add TLS v1.2 client side support for client authentication. Keep cache
of handshake records longer as we don't know the hash algorithm to use
until after the certificate request message is received.
[Steve Henson]
*) Initial TLS v1.2 client support. Add a default signature algorithms
extension including all the algorithms we support. Parse new signature
format in client key exchange. Relax some ECC signing restrictions for
TLS v1.2 as indicated in RFC5246.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add server support for TLS v1.2 signature algorithms extension. Switch
to new signature format when needed using client digest preference.
All server ciphersuites should now work correctly in TLS v1.2. No client
support yet and no support for client certificates.
[Steve Henson]
*) Initial TLS v1.2 support. Add new SHA256 digest to ssl code, switch
to SHA256 for PRF when using TLS v1.2 and later. Add new SHA256 based
ciphersuites. At present only RSA key exchange ciphersuites work with
TLS v1.2. Add new option for TLS v1.2 replacing the old and obsolete
SSL_OP_PKCS1_CHECK flags with SSL_OP_NO_TLSv1_2. New TLSv1.2 methods
and version checking.
[Steve Henson]
*) New option OPENSSL_NO_SSL_INTERN. If an application can be compiled
with this defined it will not be affected by any changes to ssl internal
structures. Add several utility functions to allow openssl application
to work with OPENSSL_NO_SSL_INTERN defined.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add SRP support.
[Tom Wu <> and Ben Laurie]
*) Add functions to copy EVP_PKEY_METHOD and retrieve flags and id.
[Steve Henson]
*) Permit abbreviated handshakes when renegotiating using the function
[Robin Seggelmann <>]
*) Add call to ENGINE_register_all_complete() to
ENGINE_load_builtin_engines(), so some implementations get used
automatically instead of needing explicit application support.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add support for TLS key exporter as described in RFC5705.
[Robin Seggelmann <>, Steve Henson]
*) Initial TLSv1.1 support. Since TLSv1.1 is very similar to TLS v1.0 only
a few changes are required:
Add SSL_OP_NO_TLSv1_1 flag.
Add TLSv1_1 methods.
Update version checking logic to handle version 1.1.
Add explicit IV handling (ported from DTLS code).
Add command line options to s_client/s_server.
[Steve Henson]
Changes between 1.0.0g and 1.0.0h [12 Mar 2012]
*) Fix MMA (Bleichenbacher's attack on PKCS #1 v1.5 RSA padding) weakness
in CMS and PKCS7 code. When RSA decryption fails use a random key for
content decryption and always return the same error. Note: this attack
needs on average 2^20 messages so it only affects automated senders. The
old behaviour can be reenabled in the CMS code by setting the
CMS_DEBUG_DECRYPT flag: this is useful for debugging and testing where
an MMA defence is not necessary.
Thanks to Ivan Nestlerode <> for discovering
this issue. (CVE-2012-0884)
[Steve Henson]
*) Fix CVE-2011-4619: make sure we really are receiving a
client hello before rejecting multiple SGC restarts. Thanks to
Ivan Nestlerode <> for discovering this bug.
[Steve Henson]
Changes between 1.0.0f and 1.0.0g [18 Jan 2012]
*) Fix for DTLS DoS issue introduced by fix for CVE-2011-4109.
Thanks to Antonio Martin, Enterprise Secure Access Research and
Development, Cisco Systems, Inc. for discovering this bug and
preparing a fix. (CVE-2012-0050)
[Antonio Martin]
Changes between 1.0.0e and 1.0.0f [4 Jan 2012]
*) Nadhem Alfardan and Kenny Paterson have discovered an extension
of the Vaudenay padding oracle attack on CBC mode encryption
which enables an efficient plaintext recovery attack against
the OpenSSL implementation of DTLS. Their attack exploits timing
differences arising during decryption processing. A research
paper describing this attack can be found at:
Thanks go to Nadhem Alfardan and Kenny Paterson of the Information
Security Group at Royal Holloway, University of London
( for discovering this flaw and to Robin Seggelmann
<> and Michael Tuexen <>
for preparing the fix. (CVE-2011-4108)
[Robin Seggelmann, Michael Tuexen]
*) Clear bytes used for block padding of SSL 3.0 records.
[Adam Langley (Google)]
*) Only allow one SGC handshake restart for SSL/TLS. Thanks to George
Kadianakis <> for discovering this issue and
Adam Langley for preparing the fix. (CVE-2011-4619)
[Adam Langley (Google)]
*) Check parameters are not NULL in GOST ENGINE. (CVE-2012-0027)
[Andrey Kulikov <>]
*) Prevent malformed RFC3779 data triggering an assertion failure.
Thanks to Andrew Chi, BBN Technologies, for discovering the flaw
and Rob Austein <> for fixing it. (CVE-2011-4577)
[Rob Austein <>]
*) Improved PRNG seeding for VOS.
[Paul Green <>]
*) Fix ssl_ciph.c set-up race.
[Adam Langley (Google)]
*) Fix spurious failures in ecdsatest.c.
[Emilia Käsper (Google)]
*) Fix the BIO_f_buffer() implementation (which was mixing different
interpretations of the '..._len' fields).
[Adam Langley (Google)]
*) Fix handling of BN_BLINDING: now BN_BLINDING_invert_ex (rather than
BN_BLINDING_invert_ex) calls BN_BLINDING_update, ensuring that concurrent
threads won't reuse the same blinding coefficients.
This also avoids the need to obtain the CRYPTO_LOCK_RSA_BLINDING
lock to call BN_BLINDING_invert_ex, and avoids one use of
BN_BLINDING_update for each BN_BLINDING structure (previously,
the last update always remained unused).
[Emilia Käsper (Google)]
*) In ssl3_clear, preserve s3->init_extra along with s3->rbuf.
[Bob Buckholz (Google)]
Changes between 1.0.0d and 1.0.0e [6 Sep 2011]
*) Fix bug where CRLs with nextUpdate in the past are sometimes accepted
by initialising X509_STORE_CTX properly. (CVE-2011-3207)
[Kaspar Brand <>]
*) Fix SSL memory handling for (EC)DH ciphersuites, in particular
for multi-threaded use of ECDH. (CVE-2011-3210)
[Adam Langley (Google)]
*) Fix x509_name_ex_d2i memory leak on bad inputs.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Remove hard coded ecdsaWithSHA1 signature tests in ssl code and check
signature public key algorithm by using OID xref utilities instead.
Before this you could only use some ECC ciphersuites with SHA1 only.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add protection against ECDSA timing attacks as mentioned in the paper
by Billy Bob Brumley and Nicola Tuveri, see:
[Billy Bob Brumley and Nicola Tuveri]
Changes between 1.0.0c and 1.0.0d [8 Feb 2011]
*) Fix parsing of OCSP stapling ClientHello extension. CVE-2011-0014
[Neel Mehta, Adam Langley, Bodo Moeller (Google)]
*) Fix bug in string printing code: if *any* escaping is enabled we must
escape the escape character (backslash) or the resulting string is
[Steve Henson]
Changes between 1.0.0b and 1.0.0c [2 Dec 2010]
*) Disable code workaround for ancient and obsolete Netscape browsers
and servers: an attacker can use it in a ciphersuite downgrade attack.
Thanks to Martin Rex for discovering this bug. CVE-2010-4180
[Steve Henson]
*) Fixed J-PAKE implementation error, originally discovered by
Sebastien Martini, further info and confirmation from Stefan
Arentz and Feng Hao. Note that this fix is a security fix. CVE-2010-4252
[Ben Laurie]
Changes between 1.0.0a and 1.0.0b [16 Nov 2010]
*) Fix extension code to avoid race conditions which can result in a buffer
overrun vulnerability: resumed sessions must not be modified as they can
be shared by multiple threads. CVE-2010-3864
[Steve Henson]
*) Fix WIN32 build system to correctly link an ENGINE directory into
a DLL.
[Steve Henson]
Changes between 1.0.0 and 1.0.0a [01 Jun 2010]
*) Check return value of int_rsa_verify in pkey_rsa_verifyrecover
[Steve Henson, Peter-Michael Hager <>]
Changes between 0.9.8n and 1.0.0 [29 Mar 2010]
*) Add "missing" function EVP_CIPHER_CTX_copy(). This copies a cipher
context. The operation can be customised via the ctrl mechanism in
case ENGINEs want to include additional functionality.
[Steve Henson]
*) Tolerate yet another broken PKCS#8 key format: private key value negative.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add new -subject_hash_old and -issuer_hash_old options to x509 utility to
output hashes compatible with older versions of OpenSSL.
[Willy Weisz <>]
*) Fix compression algorithm handling: if resuming a session use the
compression algorithm of the resumed session instead of determining
it from client hello again. Don't allow server to change algorithm.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add load_crls() function to apps tidying load_certs() too. Add option
to verify utility to allow additional CRLs to be included.
[Steve Henson]
*) Update OCSP request code to permit adding custom headers to the request:
some responders need this.
[Steve Henson]
*) The function EVP_PKEY_sign() returns <=0 on error: check return code
[Julia Lawall <>]
*) Update verify callback code in apps/s_cb.c and apps/verify.c, it
needlessly dereferenced structures, used obsolete functions and
didn't handle all updated verify codes correctly.
[Steve Henson]
*) Disable MD2 in the default configuration.
[Steve Henson]
*) In BIO_pop() and BIO_push() use the ctrl argument (which was NULL) to
indicate the initial BIO being pushed or popped. This makes it possible
to determine whether the BIO is the one explicitly called or as a result
of the ctrl being passed down the chain. Fix BIO_pop() and SSL BIOs so
it handles reference counts correctly and doesn't zero out the I/O bio
when it is not being explicitly popped. WARNING: applications which
included workarounds for the old buggy behaviour will need to be modified
or they could free up already freed BIOs.
[Steve Henson]
*) Extend the uni2asc/asc2uni => OPENSSL_uni2asc/OPENSSL_asc2uni
renaming to all platforms (within the 0.9.8 branch, this was
done conditionally on Netware platforms to avoid a name clash).
[Guenter <>]
*) Add ECDHE and PSK support to DTLS.
[Michael Tuexen <>]
*) Add CHECKED_STACK_OF macro to safestack.h, otherwise safestack can't
be used on C++.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add "missing" function EVP_MD_flags() (without this the only way to
retrieve a digest flags is by accessing the structure directly. Update
EVP_MD_do_all*() and EVP_CIPHER_do_all*() to include the name a digest
or cipher is registered as in the "from" argument. Print out all
registered digests in the dgst usage message instead of manually
attempting to work them out.
[Steve Henson]
*) If no SSLv2 ciphers are used don't use an SSLv2 compatible client hello:
this allows the use of compression and extensions. Change default cipher
string to remove SSLv2 ciphersuites. This effectively avoids ancient SSLv2
by default unless an application cipher string requests it.
[Steve Henson]
*) Alter match criteria in PKCS12_parse(). It used to try to use local
key ids to find matching certificates and keys but some PKCS#12 files
don't follow the (somewhat unwritten) rules and this strategy fails.
Now just gather all certificates together and the first private key
then look for the first certificate that matches the key.
[Steve Henson]
*) Support use of registered digest and cipher names for dgst and cipher
commands instead of having to add each one as a special case. So now
you can do:
openssl sha256 foo
as well as:
openssl dgst -sha256 foo
and this works for ENGINE based algorithms too.
[Steve Henson]
*) Update Gost ENGINE to support parameter files.
[Victor B. Wagner <>]
*) Support GeneralizedTime in ca utility.
[Oliver Martin <>, Steve Henson]
*) Enhance the hash format used for certificate directory links. The new
form uses the canonical encoding (meaning equivalent names will work
even if they aren't identical) and uses SHA1 instead of MD5. This form
is incompatible with the older format and as a result c_rehash should
be used to rebuild symbolic links.
[Steve Henson]
*) Make PKCS#8 the default write format for private keys, replacing the
traditional format. This form is standardised, more secure and doesn't
include an implicit MD5 dependency.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add a $gcc_devteam_warn option to Configure. The idea is that any code
committed to OpenSSL should pass this lot as a minimum.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add session ticket override functionality for use by EAP-FAST.
[Jouni Malinen <>]
*) Modify HMAC functions to return a value. Since these can be implemented
in an ENGINE errors can occur.
[Steve Henson]
*) Type-checked OBJ_bsearch_ex.
[Ben Laurie]
*) Type-checked OBJ_bsearch. Also some constification necessitated
by type-checking. Still to come: TXT_DB, bsearch(?),
[Ben Laurie]
*) New function OPENSSL_gmtime_adj() to add a specific number of days and
seconds to a tm structure directly, instead of going through OS
specific date routines. This avoids any issues with OS routines such
as the year 2038 bug. New *_adj() functions for ASN1 time structures
and X509_time_adj_ex() to cover the extended range. The existing
X509_time_adj() is still usable and will no longer have any date issues.
[Steve Henson]
*) Delta CRL support. New use deltas option which will attempt to locate
and search any appropriate delta CRLs available.
This work was sponsored by Google.
[Steve Henson]
*) Support for CRLs partitioned by reason code. Reorganise CRL processing
code and add additional score elements. Validate alternate CRL paths
as part of the CRL checking and indicate a new error "CRL path validation
error" in this case. Applications wanting additional details can use
the verify callback and check the new "parent" field. If this is not
NULL CRL path validation is taking place. Existing applications wont
see this because it requires extended CRL support which is off by
This work was sponsored by Google.
[Steve Henson]
*) Support for freshest CRL extension.
This work was sponsored by Google.
[Steve Henson]
*) Initial indirect CRL support. Currently only supported in the CRLs
passed directly and not via lookup. Process certificate issuer
CRL entry extension and lookup CRL entries by bother issuer name
and serial number. Check and process CRL issuer entry in IDP extension.
This work was sponsored by Google.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add support for distinct certificate and CRL paths. The CRL issuer
certificate is validated separately in this case. Only enabled if
an extended CRL support flag is set: this flag will enable additional
CRL functionality in future.
This work was sponsored by Google.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add support for policy mappings extension.
This work was sponsored by Google.
[Steve Henson]
*) Fixes to pathlength constraint, self issued certificate handling,
policy processing to align with RFC3280 and PKITS tests.
This work was sponsored by Google.
[Steve Henson]
*) Support for name constraints certificate extension. DN, email, DNS
and URI types are currently supported.
This work was sponsored by Google.
[Steve Henson]
*) To cater for systems that provide a pointer-based thread ID rather
than numeric, deprecate the current numeric thread ID mechanism and
replace it with a structure and associated callback type. This
mechanism allows a numeric "hash" to be extracted from a thread ID in
either case, and on platforms where pointers are larger than 'long',
mixing is done to help ensure the numeric 'hash' is usable even if it
can't be guaranteed unique. The default mechanism is to use "&errno"
as a pointer-based thread ID to distinguish between threads.
Applications that want to provide their own thread IDs should now use
CRYPTO_THREADID_set_callback() to register a callback that will call
either CRYPTO_THREADID_set_numeric() or CRYPTO_THREADID_set_pointer().
Note that ERR_remove_state() is now deprecated, because it is tied
to the assumption that thread IDs are numeric. ERR_remove_state(0)
to free the current thread's error state should be replaced by
(This new approach replaces the functions CRYPTO_set_idptr_callback(),
CRYPTO_get_idptr_callback(), and CRYPTO_thread_idptr() that existed in
OpenSSL 0.9.9-dev between June 2006 and August 2008. Also, if an
application was previously providing a numeric thread callback that
was inappropriate for distinguishing threads, then uniqueness might
have been obtained with &errno that happened immediately in the
intermediate development versions of OpenSSL; this is no longer the
case, the numeric thread callback will now override the automatic use
of &errno.)
[Geoff Thorpe, with help from Bodo Moeller]
*) Initial support for different CRL issuing certificates. This covers a
simple case where the self issued certificates in the chain exist and
the real CRL issuer is higher in the existing chain.
This work was sponsored by Google.
[Steve Henson]
*) Removed effectively defunct crypto/store from the build.
[Ben Laurie]
*) Revamp of STACK to provide stronger type-checking. Still to come:
TXT_DB, bsearch(?), OBJ_bsearch, qsort, CRYPTO_EX_DATA, ASN1_VALUE,
[Ben Laurie]
*) Add a new SSL_MODE_RELEASE_BUFFERS mode flag to release unused buffer
RAM on SSL connections. This option can save about 34k per idle SSL.
[Nick Mathewson]
*) Revamp of LHASH to provide stronger type-checking. Still to come:
STACK, TXT_DB, bsearch, qsort.
[Ben Laurie]
*) Initial support for Cryptographic Message Syntax (aka CMS) based
on RFC3850, RFC3851 and RFC3852. New cms directory and cms utility,
support for data, signedData, compressedData, digestedData and
encryptedData, envelopedData types included. Scripts to check against
RFC4134 examples draft and interop and consistency checks of many
content types and variants.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add options to enc utility to support use of zlib compression BIO.
[Steve Henson]
*) Extend mk1mf to support importing of options and assembly language
files from Configure script, currently only included in VC-WIN32.
The assembly language rules can now optionally generate the source
files from the associated perl scripts.
[Steve Henson]
*) Implement remaining functionality needed to support GOST ciphersuites.
Interop testing has been performed using CryptoPro implementations.
[Victor B. Wagner <>]
*) s390x assembler pack.
[Andy Polyakov]
*) ARMv4 assembler pack. ARMv4 refers to v4 and later ISA, not CPU
[Andy Polyakov]
*) Implement Opaque PRF Input TLS extension as specified in
draft-rescorla-tls-opaque-prf-input-00.txt. Since this is not an
official specification yet and no extension type assignment by
IANA exists, this extension (for now) will have to be explicitly
enabled when building OpenSSL by providing the extension number
to use. For example, specify an option
to the "config" or "Configure" script to enable the extension,
assuming extension number 0x9527 (which is a completely arbitrary
and unofficial assignment based on the MD5 hash of the Internet
Draft). Note that by doing so, you potentially lose
interoperability with other TLS implementations since these might
be using the same extension number for other purposes.
SSL_set_tlsext_opaque_prf_input(ssl, src, len) is used to set the
opaque PRF input value to use in the handshake. This will create
an interal copy of the length-'len' string at 'src', and will
return non-zero for success.
To get more control and flexibility, provide a callback function
by using
SSL_CTX_set_tlsext_opaque_prf_input_callback(ctx, cb)
SSL_CTX_set_tlsext_opaque_prf_input_callback_arg(ctx, arg)
int (*cb)(SSL *, void *peerinput, size_t len, void *arg);
void *arg;
Callback function 'cb' will be called in handshakes, and is
expected to use SSL_set_tlsext_opaque_prf_input() as appropriate.
Argument 'arg' is for application purposes (the value as given to
SSL_CTX_set_tlsext_opaque_prf_input_callback_arg() will directly
be provided to the callback function). The callback function
has to return non-zero to report success: usually 1 to use opaque
PRF input just if possible, or 2 to enforce use of the opaque PRF
input. In the latter case, the library will abort the handshake
if opaque PRF input is not successfully negotiated.
Arguments 'peerinput' and 'len' given to the callback function
will always be NULL and 0 in the case of a client. A server will
see the client's opaque PRF input through these variables if
available (NULL and 0 otherwise). Note that if the server
provides an opaque PRF input, the length must be the same as the
length of the client's opaque PRF input.
Note that the callback function will only be called when creating
a new session (session resumption can resume whatever was
previously negotiated), and will not be called in SSL 2.0
handshakes; thus, SSL_CTX_set_options(ctx, SSL_OP_NO_SSLv2) or
SSL_set_options(ssl, SSL_OP_NO_SSLv2) is especially recommended
for applications that need to enforce opaque PRF input.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Update ssl code to support digests other than SHA1+MD5 for handshake
[Victor B. Wagner <>]
*) Add RFC4507 support to OpenSSL. This includes the corrections in
RFC4507bis. The encrypted ticket format is an encrypted encoded
SSL_SESSION structure, that way new session features are automatically
If a client application caches session in an SSL_SESSION structure
support is transparent because tickets are now stored in the encoded
The SSL_CTX structure automatically generates keys for ticket
protection in servers so again support should be possible
with no application modification.
If a client or server wishes to disable RFC4507 support then the option
SSL_OP_NO_TICKET can be set.
Add a TLS extension debugging callback to allow the contents of any client
or server extensions to be examined.
This work was sponsored by Google.
[Steve Henson]
*) Final changes to avoid use of pointer pointer casts in OpenSSL.
OpenSSL should now compile cleanly on gcc 4.2
[Peter Hartley <>, Steve Henson]
*) Update SSL library to use new EVP_PKEY MAC API. Include generic MAC
support including streaming MAC support: this is required for GOST
ciphersuite support.
[Victor B. Wagner <>, Steve Henson]
*) Add option -stream to use PKCS#7 streaming in smime utility. New
function i2d_PKCS7_bio_stream() and PEM_write_PKCS7_bio_stream()
to output in BER and PEM format.
[Steve Henson]
*) Experimental support for use of HMAC via EVP_PKEY interface. This
allows HMAC to be handled via the EVP_DigestSign*() interface. The
EVP_PKEY "key" in this case is the HMAC key, potentially allowing
ENGINE support for HMAC keys which are unextractable. New -mac and
-macopt options to dgst utility.
[Steve Henson]
*) New option -sigopt to dgst utility. Update dgst to use
EVP_Digest{Sign,Verify}*. These two changes make it possible to use
alternative signing parameters such as X9.31 or PSS in the dgst
[Steve Henson]
*) Change ssl_cipher_apply_rule(), the internal function that does
the work each time a ciphersuite string requests enabling
("foo+bar"), moving ("+foo+bar"), disabling ("-foo+bar", or
removing ("!foo+bar") a class of ciphersuites: Now it maintains
the order of disabled ciphersuites such that those ciphersuites
that most recently went from enabled to disabled not only stay
in order with respect to each other, but also have higher priority
than other disabled ciphersuites the next time ciphersuites are
enabled again.
This means that you can now say, e.g., "PSK:-PSK:HIGH" to enable
the same ciphersuites as with "HIGH" alone, but in a specific
order where the PSK ciphersuites come first (since they are the
most recently disabled ciphersuites when "HIGH" is parsed).
Also, change ssl_create_cipher_list() (using this new
funcionality) such that between otherwise identical
cihpersuites, ephemeral ECDH is preferred over ephemeral DH in
the default order.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Change ssl_create_cipher_list() so that it automatically
arranges the ciphersuites in reasonable order before starting
to process the rule string. Thus, the definition for "DEFAULT"
(SSL_DEFAULT_CIPHER_LIST) now is just "ALL:!aNULL:!eNULL", but
remains equivalent to "AES:ALL:!aNULL:!eNULL:+aECDH:+kRSA:+RC4:@STRENGTH".
This makes it much easier to arrive at a reasonable default order
in applications for which anonymous ciphers are OK (meaning
that you can't actually use DEFAULT).
[Bodo Moeller; suggested by Victor Duchovni]
*) Split the SSL/TLS algorithm mask (as used for ciphersuite string
processing) into multiple integers instead of setting
"SSL_MAC_MASK", and "SSL_SSL_MASK" bits all in a single integer.
(These masks as well as the individual bit definitions are hidden
away into the non-exported interface ssl/ssl_locl.h, so this
change to the definition of the SSL_CIPHER structure shouldn't
affect applications.) This give us more bits for each of these
categories, so there is no longer a need to coagulate AES128 and
AES256 into a single algorithm bit, and to coagulate Camellia128
and Camellia256 into a single algorithm bit, which has led to all
kinds of kludges.
Thus, among other things, the kludge introduced in 0.9.7m and
0.9.8e for masking out AES256 independently of AES128 or masking
out Camellia256 independently of AES256 is not needed here in 0.9.9.
With the change, we also introduce new ciphersuite aliases that
so far were missing: "AES128", "AES256", "CAMELLIA128", and
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Add support for dsa-with-SHA224 and dsa-with-SHA256.
Use the leftmost N bytes of the signature input if the input is
larger than the prime q (with N being the size in bytes of q).
[Nils Larsch]
*) Very *very* experimental PKCS#7 streaming encoder support. Nothing uses
it yet and it is largely untested.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add support for the ecdsa-with-SHA224/256/384/512 signature types.
[Nils Larsch]
*) Initial incomplete changes to avoid need for function casts in OpenSSL
some compilers (gcc 4.2 and later) reject their use. Safestack is
reimplemented. Update ASN1 to avoid use of legacy functions.
[Steve Henson]
*) Win32/64 targets are linked with Winsock2.
[Andy Polyakov]
*) Add an X509_CRL_METHOD structure to allow CRL processing to be redirected
to external functions. This can be used to increase CRL handling
efficiency especially when CRLs are very large by (for example) storing
the CRL revoked certificates in a database.
[Steve Henson]
*) Overhaul of by_dir code. Add support for dynamic loading of CRLs so
new CRLs added to a directory can be used. New command line option
-verify_return_error to s_client and s_server. This causes real errors
to be returned by the verify callback instead of carrying on no matter
what. This reflects the way a "real world" verify callback would behave.
[Steve Henson]
*) GOST engine, supporting several GOST algorithms and public key formats.
Kindly donated by Cryptocom.
*) Partial support for Issuing Distribution Point CRL extension. CRLs
partitioned by DP are handled but no indirect CRL or reason partitioning
(yet). Complete overhaul of CRL handling: now the most suitable CRL is
selected via a scoring technique which handles IDP and AKID in CRLs.
[Steve Henson]
*) New X509_STORE_CTX callbacks lookup_crls() and lookup_certs() which
will ultimately be used for all verify operations: this will remove the
X509_STORE dependency on certificate verification and allow alternative
lookup methods. X509_STORE based implementations of these two callbacks.
[Steve Henson]
*) Allow multiple CRLs to exist in an X509_STORE with matching issuer names.
Modify get_crl() to find a valid (unexpired) CRL if possible.
[Steve Henson]
*) New function X509_CRL_match() to check if two CRLs are identical. Normally
this would be called X509_CRL_cmp() but that name is already used by
a function that just compares CRL issuer names. Cache several CRL
extensions in X509_CRL structure and cache CRLDP in X509.
[Steve Henson]
*) Store a "canonical" representation of X509_NAME structure (ASN1 Name)
this maps equivalent X509_NAME structures into a consistent structure.
Name comparison can then be performed rapidly using memcmp().
[Steve Henson]
*) Non-blocking OCSP request processing. Add -timeout option to ocsp
[Steve Henson]
*) Allow digests to supply their own micalg string for S/MIME type using
[Steve Henson]
*) During PKCS7 signing pass the PKCS7 SignerInfo structure to the
EVP_PKEY_METHOD before and after signing via the EVP_PKEY_CTRL_PKCS7_SIGN
ctrl. It can then customise the structure before and/or after signing
if necessary.
[Steve Henson]
*) New function OBJ_add_sigid() to allow application defined signature OIDs
to be added to OpenSSLs internal tables. New function OBJ_sigid_free()
to free up any added signature OIDs.
[Steve Henson]
*) New functions EVP_CIPHER_do_all(), EVP_CIPHER_do_all_sorted(),
EVP_MD_do_all() and EVP_MD_do_all_sorted() to enumerate internal
digest and cipher tables. New options added to openssl utility:
list-message-digest-algorithms and list-cipher-algorithms.
[Steve Henson]
*) Change the array representation of binary polynomials: the list
of degrees of non-zero coefficients is now terminated with -1.
Previously it was terminated with 0, which was also part of the
value; thus, the array representation was not applicable to
polynomials where t^0 has coefficient zero. This change makes
the array representation useful in a more general context.
[Douglas Stebila]
*) Various modifications and fixes to SSL/TLS cipher string
handling. For ECC, the code now distinguishes between fixed ECDH
with RSA certificates on the one hand and with ECDSA certificates
on the other hand, since these are separate ciphersuites. The
unused code for Fortezza ciphersuites has been removed.
For consistency with EDH, ephemeral ECDH is now called "EECDH"
(not "ECDHE"). For consistency with the code for DH
certificates, use of ECDH certificates is now considered ECDH
authentication, not RSA or ECDSA authentication (the latter is
merely the CA's signing algorithm and not actively used in the
The temporary ciphersuite alias "ECCdraft" is no longer
available, and ECC ciphersuites are no longer excluded from "ALL"
and "DEFAULT". The following aliases now exist for RFC 4492
ciphersuites, most of these by analogy with the DH case:
kECDHr - ECDH cert, signed with RSA
kECDHe - ECDH cert, signed with ECDSA
kECDH - ECDH cert (signed with either RSA or ECDSA)
kEECDH - ephemeral ECDH
ECDH - ECDH cert or ephemeral ECDH
aECDH - ECDH cert
AECDH - anonymous ECDH
EECDH - non-anonymous ephemeral ECDH (equivalent to "kEECDH:-AECDH")
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Add additional S/MIME capabilities for AES and GOST ciphers if supported.
Use correct micalg parameters depending on digest(s) in signed message.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add engine support for EVP_PKEY_ASN1_METHOD. Add functions to process
an ENGINE asn1 method. Support ENGINE lookups in the ASN1 code.
[Steve Henson]
*) Initial engine support for EVP_PKEY_METHOD. New functions to permit
an engine to register a method. Add ENGINE lookups for methods and
functional reference processing.
[Steve Henson]
*) New functions EVP_Digest{Sign,Verify)*. These are enchance versions of
EVP_{Sign,Verify}* which allow an application to customise the signature
[Steve Henson]
*) New -resign option to smime utility. This adds one or more signers
to an existing PKCS#7 signedData structure. Also -md option to use an
alternative message digest algorithm for signing.
[Steve Henson]
*) Tidy up PKCS#7 routines and add new functions to make it easier to
create PKCS7 structures containing multiple signers. Update smime
application to support multiple signers.
[Steve Henson]
*) New -macalg option to pkcs12 utility to allow setting of an alternative
digest MAC.
[Steve Henson]
*) Initial support for PKCS#5 v2.0 PRFs other than default SHA1 HMAC.
Reorganize PBE internals to lookup from a static table using NIDs,
add support for HMAC PBE OID translation. Add a EVP_CIPHER ctrl:
EVP_CTRL_PBE_PRF_NID this allows a cipher to specify an alternative
PRF which will be automatically used with PBES2.
[Steve Henson]
*) Replace the algorithm specific calls to generate keys in "req" with the
new API.
[Steve Henson]
*) Update PKCS#7 enveloped data routines to use new API. This is now
supported by any public key method supporting the encrypt operation. A
ctrl is added to allow the public key algorithm to examine or modify
the PKCS#7 RecipientInfo structure if it needs to: for RSA this is
a no op.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add a ctrl to asn1 method to allow a public key algorithm to express
a default digest type to use. In most cases this will be SHA1 but some
algorithms (such as GOST) need to specify an alternative digest. The
return value indicates how strong the preference is 1 means optional and
2 is mandatory (that is it is the only supported type). Modify
ASN1_item_sign() to accept a NULL digest argument to indicate it should
use the default md. Update openssl utilities to use the default digest
type for signing if it is not explicitly indicated.
[Steve Henson]
*) Use OID cross reference table in ASN1_sign() and ASN1_verify(). New
EVP_MD flag EVP_MD_FLAG_PKEY_METHOD_SIGNATURE. This uses the relevant
signing method from the key type. This effectively removes the link
between digests and public key types.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add an OID cross reference table and utility functions. Its purpose is to
translate between signature OIDs such as SHA1WithrsaEncryption and SHA1,
rsaEncryption. This will allow some of the algorithm specific hackery
needed to use the correct OID to be removed.
[Steve Henson]
*) Remove algorithm specific dependencies when setting PKCS7_SIGNER_INFO
structures for PKCS7_sign(). They are now set up by the relevant public
key ASN1 method.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add provisional EC pkey method with support for ECDSA and ECDH.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add support for key derivation (agreement) in the API, DH method and
[Steve Henson]
*) Add DSA pkey method and DH pkey methods, extend DH ASN1 method to support
public and private key formats. As a side effect these add additional
command line functionality not previously available: DSA signatures can be
generated and verified using pkeyutl and DH key support and generation in
pkey, genpkey.
[Steve Henson]
*) BeOS support.
[Oliver Tappe <>]
*) New make target "install_html_docs" installs HTML renditions of the
manual pages.
[Oliver Tappe <>]
*) New utility "genpkey" this is analogous to "genrsa" etc except it can
generate keys for any algorithm. Extend and update EVP_PKEY_METHOD to
support key and parameter generation and add initial key generation
functionality for RSA.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add functions for main EVP_PKEY_method operations. The undocumented
functions EVP_PKEY_{encrypt,decrypt} have been renamed to
[Steve Henson]
*) Initial definitions for EVP_PKEY_METHOD. This will be a high level public
key API, doesn't do much yet.
[Steve Henson]
*) New function EVP_PKEY_asn1_get0_info() to retrieve information about
public key algorithms. New option to openssl utility:
"list-public-key-algorithms" to print out info.
[Steve Henson]
*) Implement the Supported Elliptic Curves Extension for
ECC ciphersuites from draft-ietf-tls-ecc-12.txt.
[Douglas Stebila]
*) Don't free up OIDs in OBJ_cleanup() if they are in use by EVP_MD or
EVP_CIPHER structures to avoid later problems in EVP_cleanup().
[Steve Henson]
*) New utilities pkey and pkeyparam. These are similar to algorithm specific
utilities such as rsa, dsa, dsaparam etc except they process any key
[Steve Henson]
*) Transfer public key printing routines to EVP_PKEY_ASN1_METHOD. New
functions EVP_PKEY_print_public(), EVP_PKEY_print_private(),
EVP_PKEY_print_param() to print public key data from an EVP_PKEY
[Steve Henson]
*) Initial support for pluggable public key ASN1.
De-spaghettify the public key ASN1 handling. Move public and private
key ASN1 handling to a new EVP_PKEY_ASN1_METHOD structure. Relocate
algorithm specific handling to a single module within the relevant
algorithm directory. Add functions to allow (near) opaque processing
of public and private key structures.
[Steve Henson]
*) Implement the Supported Point Formats Extension for
ECC ciphersuites from draft-ietf-tls-ecc-12.txt.
[Douglas Stebila]
*) Add initial support for RFC 4279 PSK TLS ciphersuites. Add members
for the psk identity [hint] and the psk callback functions to the
SSL_SESSION, SSL and SSL_CTX structure.
New ciphersuites:
New functions:
[Mika Kousa and Pasi Eronen of Nokia Corporation]
*) Add RFC 3161 compliant time stamp request creation, response generation
and response verification functionality.
[Zoltán Glózik <>, The OpenTSA Project]
*) Add initial support for TLS extensions, specifically for the server_name
extension so far. The SSL_SESSION, SSL_CTX, and SSL data structures now
have new members for a host name. The SSL data structure has an
additional member SSL_CTX *initial_ctx so that new sessions can be
stored in that context to allow for session resumption, even after the
SSL has been switched to a new SSL_CTX in reaction to a client's
server_name extension.
New functions (subject to change):
New CTRL codes and macros (subject to change):
- SSL_CTX_set_tlsext_servername_callback()
- SSL_CTX_set_tlsext_servername_arg()
SSL_CTRL_SET_TLSEXT_HOSTNAME - SSL_set_tlsext_host_name()
openssl s_client has a new '-servername ...' option.
openssl s_server has new options '-servername_host ...', '-cert2 ...',
'-key2 ...', '-servername_fatal' (subject to change). This allows
testing the HostName extension for a specific single host name ('-cert'
and '-key' remain fallbacks for handshakes without HostName
negotiation). If the unrecognized_name alert has to be sent, this by
default is a warning; it becomes fatal with the '-servername_fatal'
[Peter Sylvester, Remy Allais, Christophe Renou]
*) Whirlpool hash implementation is added.
[Andy Polyakov]
*) BIGNUM code on 64-bit SPARCv9 targets is switched from bn(64,64) to
bn(64,32). Because of instruction set limitations it doesn't have
any negative impact on performance. This was done mostly in order
to make it possible to share assembler modules, such as bn_mul_mont
implementations, between 32- and 64-bit builds without hassle.
[Andy Polyakov]
*) Move code previously exiled into file crypto/ec/ec2_smpt.c
to ec2_smpl.c, and no longer require the OPENSSL_EC_BIN_PT_COMP
[Bodo Moeller]
*) New candidate for BIGNUM assembler implementation, bn_mul_mont,
dedicated Montgomery multiplication procedure, is introduced.
BN_MONT_CTX is modified to allow bn_mul_mont to reach for higher
"64-bit" performance on certain 32-bit targets.
[Andy Polyakov]
*) New option SSL_OP_NO_COMP to disable use of compression selectively
in SSL structures. New SSL ctrl to set maximum send fragment size.
Save memory by seeting the I/O buffer sizes dynamically instead of
using the maximum available value.
[Steve Henson]
*) New option -V for 'openssl ciphers'. This prints the ciphersuite code
in addition to the text details.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Very, very preliminary EXPERIMENTAL support for printing of general
ASN1 structures. This currently produces rather ugly output and doesn't
handle several customised structures at all.
[Steve Henson]
*) Integrated support for PVK file format and some related formats such
as MS PUBLICKEYBLOB and PRIVATEKEYBLOB. Command line switches to support
these in the 'rsa' and 'dsa' utilities.
[Steve Henson]
*) Support for PKCS#1 RSAPublicKey format on rsa utility command line.
[Steve Henson]
*) Remove the ancient ASN1_METHOD code. This was only ever used in one
place for the (very old) "NETSCAPE" format certificates which are now
handled using new ASN1 code equivalents.
[Steve Henson]
*) Let the TLSv1_method() etc. functions return a 'const' SSL_METHOD
pointer and make the SSL_METHOD parameter in SSL_CTX_new,
SSL_CTX_set_ssl_version and SSL_set_ssl_method 'const'.
[Nils Larsch]
*) Modify CRL distribution points extension code to print out previously
unsupported fields. Enhance extension setting code to allow setting of
all fields.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add print and set support for Issuing Distribution Point CRL extension.
[Steve Henson]
*) Change 'Configure' script to enable Camellia by default.
Changes between 0.9.8m and 0.9.8n [24 Mar 2010]
*) When rejecting SSL/TLS records due to an incorrect version number, never
update s->server with a new major version number. As of
- OpenSSL 0.9.8m if 'short' is a 16-bit type,
- OpenSSL 0.9.8f if 'short' is longer than 16 bits,
the previous behavior could result in a read attempt at NULL when
receiving specific incorrect SSL/TLS records once record payload
protection is active. (CVE-2010-0740)
[Bodo Moeller, Adam Langley <>]
*) Fix for CVE-2010-0433 where some kerberos enabled versions of OpenSSL
could be crashed if the relevant tables were not present (e.g. chrooted).
[Tomas Hoger <>]
Changes between 0.9.8l and 0.9.8m [25 Feb 2010]
*) Always check bn_wexpend() return values for failure. (CVE-2009-3245)
[Martin Olsson, Neel Mehta]
*) Fix X509_STORE locking: Every 'objs' access requires a lock (to
accommodate for stack sorting, always a write lock!).
[Bodo Moeller]
*) On some versions of WIN32 Heap32Next is very slow. This can cause
excessive delays in the RAND_poll(): over a minute. As a workaround
include a time check in the inner Heap32Next loop too.
[Steve Henson]
*) The code that handled flushing of data in SSL/TLS originally used the
BIO_CTRL_INFO ctrl to see if any data was pending first. This caused
the problem outlined in PR#1949. The fix suggested there however can
trigger problems with buggy BIO_CTRL_WPENDING (e.g. some versions
of Apache). So instead simplify the code to flush unconditionally.
This should be fine since flushing with no data to flush is a no op.
[Steve Henson]
*) Handle TLS versions 2.0 and later properly and correctly use the
highest version of TLS/SSL supported. Although TLS >= 2.0 is some way
off ancient servers have a habit of sticking around for a while...
[Steve Henson]
*) Modify compression code so it frees up structures without using the
ex_data callbacks. This works around a problem where some applications
call CRYPTO_cleanup_all_ex_data() before application exit (e.g. when
restarting) then use compression (e.g. SSL with compression) later.
This results in significant per-connection memory leaks and
has caused some security issues including CVE-2008-1678 and
[Steve Henson]
*) Constify crypto/cast (i.e., <openssl/cast.h>): a CAST_KEY doesn't
change when encrypting or decrypting.
[Bodo Moeller]
*) Add option SSL_OP_LEGACY_SERVER_CONNECT which will allow clients to
connect and renegotiate with servers which do not support RI.
Until RI is more widely deployed this option is enabled by default.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add "missing" ssl ctrls to clear options and mode.
[Steve Henson]
*) If client attempts to renegotiate and doesn't support RI respond with
a no_renegotiation alert as required by RFC5746. Some renegotiating
TLS clients will continue a connection gracefully when they receive
the alert. Unfortunately OpenSSL mishandled this alert and would hang
waiting for a server hello which it will never receive. Now we treat a
received no_renegotiation alert as a fatal error. This is because
applications requesting a renegotiation might well expect it to succeed
and would have no code in place to handle the server denying it so the
only safe thing to do is to terminate the connection.
[Steve Henson]
*) Add ctrl macro SSL_get_secure_renegotiation_support() which returns 1 if
peer supports secure renegotiation and 0 otherwise. Print out peer
renegotiation support in s_client/s_server.
[Steve Henson]
*) Replace the highly broken and deprecated SPKAC certification method with
the updated NID creation version. This should correctly handle UTF8.
[Steve Henson]
*) Implement RFC5746. Re-enable renegotiation but require the extension
turns out to be a bad idea. It has been replaced by
SSL_CTX_set_options(). This is really not recommended unless you
know what you are doing.
[Eric Rescorla <>, Ben Laurie, Steve Henson]
*) Fixes to stateless session resumption handling. Use initial_ctx when
issuing and attempting to decrypt tickets in case it has changed during
servername handling. Use a non-zero length session ID when attempting
stateless session resumption: this makes it possible to determine if
a resumption has occurred immediately after receiving server hello
(several places in OpenSSL subtly assume this) instead of later in